FIRST ORDER OUTAGE STATISTICS OF ASYMMETRICAL RF-OW DUAL-HOP RELAY COMMUNICATIONS
This paper addresses the first-order outage statistics of asymmetrical radio frequency (RF)-optical wireless (OW) relay systems over non turbulent-induced-fading (nTIF) and turbulent-induced-fading (TIF) channels. We rely on dual-hop amplify-and-forward relay (AFR) scheme and provide detailed mathematical development for derivation of novel exact analytical as well as novel closed form approximative expressions for: i). cumulative distribution function, ii.) outage probability, and iii.) average bit-error-rate. The system under consideration is modeled as the product of independent Nakagmi-m and double squared Nakagami-m (also known as Gamma-Gamma) random processes. The obtained results of the proposed system are graphically presented for RF-OW TIF and nTIF channel sets of parameters. Moreover, the detailed comparisons of exact and approximated numerical results whose derivation resorts on exponential Laplace approximation method (LAM) are provided and thoroughly examined for the considered RF-OW statistical measures.
Al-Ahmadi, S. 2014. The Gamma-Gamma Signal Fading Model: A Survey [Wireless Corner]. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 56(5), pp. 245-260. doi:10.1109/map.2014.6971962
Andrews, L. C., & Phillips, R. L. 2005. Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media. Washington: SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng. doi:10.1117/3.626196
Anees, S., & Bhatnagar, M. R. 2015. Performance of an Amplify-and-Forward Dual-Hop Asymmetric RF–FSO Communication System. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 7(2), p. 124. doi:10.1364/jocn.7.000124
Butler, R. W., & Wood, A. T. A. 2002. Laplace approximations for hypergeometric functions with matrix argument. The Annals of Statistics, 30(4), pp. 1155-1177. doi:10.1214/aos/1031689021
Douik, A., Dahrouj, H., Al-Naffouri, T. Y., & Alouini, M. 2016. Hybrid Radio/Free-Space Optical Design for Next Generation Backhaul Systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 64(6), pp. 2563-2577. doi:10.1109/tcomm.2016.2557789
Gradshteyn, I. S., & Ryzhik, I. M. 2010. Table of Integrals, Series, and Products. New York: Academic. 6th ed.
Hajri, N., Youssef, N., Kawabata, T., Patzold, M., & Dahech, W. 2018. Statistical Properties of Double Hoyt Fading With Applications to the Performance Analysis of Wireless Communication Systems. IEEE Access, 6, pp. 19597-19609. doi:10.1109/access.2018.2820746
Hamza, A. S., Deogun, J. S., & Alexander, D. R. 2019. Classification Framework for Free Space Optical Communication Links and Systems. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 21(2), pp. 1346-1382. doi:10.1109/comst.2018.2876805
Harding, M. C., & Hausman, J. 2007. Using a Laplace approximation to estimate the random coefficients logit model by nonlinear least squares. International Economic Review, 48(4), pp. 1311-1328. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2354.2007.00463.x
Illi, E., Bouanani, F. E., & Ayoub, F. 2017. A performance study of a hybrid 5G RF/FSO transmission system. In 2017 International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)., pp. 1-7. doi:10.1109/wincom.2017.8238167
Issaid, C. B., & Alouini, M. 2019. Level Crossing Rate and Average Outage Duration of Free Space Optical Links. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 67(9), pp. 6234-6242. doi:10.1109/tcomm.2019.2918324
Karimi, M., & Masoumeh, N. 2011. Free space optical communications via optical amplify-and-forward relaying. Jour. of Light. Technology, 29(2), pp. 242-248.
Khalighi, M. A., & Uysal, M. 2014. Survey on Free Space Optical Communication: A Communication Theory Perspective. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 16(4), pp. 2231-2258. doi:10.1109/comst.2014.2329501
Milosevic, N., Stefanovic, M., Nikolic, Z., Spalevic, P., & Stefanovic, C. 2018. Performance Analysis of Interference-Limited Mobile-to-Mobile κ-μ Fading Channel. Wireless Personal Communications, 101(3), pp. 1685-1701.
Nakagami, M. 1960. The m-distribution-A general formula of intensity distribution of rapid fading. In W. G. Hoffman Ed., Statistical Methods in Radio Wave Propagation. Oxford: Pergamon.
Petkovic, M., Djordjevic, G. T., & Djordjevic, I. B. 2017. Analysis of mixed RF/FSO system with imperfect CSI estimation. In 2017 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)., pp. 1-7. doi:10.1109/icton.2017.8024759
Petkovic, M. I., & Trpovski, Z. 2018. Exact Outage Probability Analysis of the Mixed RF/FSO System With Variable-Gain Relays. IEEE Photonics Journal, 10(6), pp. 1-14. doi:10.1109/jphot.2018.2882611
Simon, M. K., & Alouini, M. 2000. Digital Communication Over Fading Channels. New York, USA: Wiley. doi:10.1002/0471200697
Stefanovic, C. 2017. LCR of amplify and forward wireless relay systems in general alpha-Mu fading environment. In Proceedings 25th Telecommunication Forum. pp. 1-6.
Stefanovic, C., Pratesi, M., & Santucci, F. 2018. Performance evaluation of cooperative communications over fading channels in vehicular networks. In Proceedings 2nd URSI Atalntic Science Radio Meeting (AT-RASC). pp. 1-4.
Stefanovic, D., Stefanovic, C., Djosic, D., Milic, D., Rancic, D., & Stefanovic, M. 2019. LCR of the Ratio of the Product of Two Squared Nakagami-m Random Processes and Its Application to Wireless Communication Systems. In 2019 18th International Symposium INFOTEH-JAHORINA (INFOTEH).Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)., pp. 1-4. doi:10.1109/infoteh.2019.8717765
Stefanovic, C., Pratesi, M., & Santucci, F. 2019. Second Order Statistics of Mixed RF-FSO Relay Systems and its Application to Vehicular Networks. In Proceedings 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). pp. 1-6.
Talha, B., & Pätzold, M. 2007. On the statistical properties of double Rice channels. In Proceedings 10th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, WPMC. pp. 517-522.
Vetelino, F. S., Young, C., Andrews, L., & Recolons, J. 2007. Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence. Applied Optics, 46(11), p. 2099. doi:10.1364/ao.46.002099
Wang, J. 2010. Dirichlet Processes in Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. Communications in Statistics - Simulation and Computation, 39(3), pp. 539-556. doi:10.1080/03610910903511745
Zedini, E., Ansari, I. S., & Alouini, M. 2015. Performance Analysis of Mixed Nakagami- $m$ and Gamma–Gamma Dual-Hop FSO Transmission Systems. IEEE Photonics Journal, 7(1), pp. 1-20. doi:10.1109/jphot.2014.2381657
Zedini, E., Ansari, I. S., & Alouini, M. 2015. Unified performance analysis of mixed line of sight RF-FSO fixed gain dual-hop transmission systems. In 2015 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)., pp. 46-51. doi:10.1109/wcnc.2015.7127443
Zlatanov, N., Hadzi-Velkov, Z., & Karagiannidis, G. 2008. Level crossing rate and average fade duration of the double Nakagami-m random process and application in MIMO keyhole fading channels. IEEE Communications Letters, 12(11), pp. 822-824. doi:10.1109/lcomm.2008.081058
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.