• Vidoslav Dekić Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
  • Novica Ristić Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Priština, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
  • Biljana Dekić Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Priština, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
  • Milenko Ristić Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Priština, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
Keywords: Phenolics, Flavonoids, Crataegus monogyna, Extracts, Antioxidant activity


Considering the facts that phenolic compounds have many pharmacological effects, as well that antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds has been proven in various experimental systems, aim of this research was to determine the content of total phenols and flavonoids and evaluation of antioxidant activity in ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of fruits and leaves of the plant species Crataegus monogya Jacq., which is known as common hawthorn. The content of total phenolic compounds was determined by the spectrophotometric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the content of flavonoids was determined using aluminum chloride. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activity of tested extracts was performed using the DPPH method. The amount of total phenolics was varied in fruits and leaves extracts and ranged from 38.05 ± 0.18 to 365.11 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g dw. Ethyl acetate extract of hawthorn leaves showed the highest content of phenolic compounds (365.11 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g dw). The flavonoid content was different in the fruits and leaves of hawthorn and ranged from 21.11 ± 0.11 to 122.98 ± 0.21 mg RU/g dw, whereby the highest content of flavonoids was found in ethyl acetate extract of leaves (122.98 ± 0.21 mg RU/g dw). Antioxidant activity of the tested extracts was expressed as IC50 values and ranged from 5.53 ± 0.08 to 293.51 ± 0.28 μg/ml. Ethyl acetate extract of hawthorn leaves showed considerable antioxidant potential (IC50 = 5.53 ± 0.08 μg/ml). Based on the obtained results, a significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids compounds in hawthorn fruits and leaves extracts.


Alirezalu, A., Salehi, P., Ahmadi, N., Sonboli, A., Aceto, S., Maleki, H. H., & Ayyari, M. 2018. Flavonoids profile and antioxidant activity in flowers and leaves of hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) from different regions of Iran. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), pp. 452-470. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2018.1446146

Barros, L., Carvalho, A. M., & Ferreira, I. C. 2011. Comparing the composition and bioactivity of Crataegus monogyn flowers and fruits used in folk medicine. Phytochemical Analysis, 22(2), pp.181–188. doi: 10.1002/pca.1267

Benli M., Yiğit, N., Geven, F., Güney, K., & Bingöl, Ü. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of endemic Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 26(8), pp. 844-851. doi: 10.1002/cbf.1515

Braca, A., Tommasi, N. D., Bari, L. D., Pizza, C., Politi, M., & Morelli, I. 2001. Antioxidant Principles from Bauhinia terapotensis. Journal of Natural Products, 64(7), pp. 892-895. doi: 10.1021/np0100845

Chang, C., Yang, M., Wen, H., & Chern, J. 2002. Estimation of Total Flavonoid Content in Propolis by Two Complementary Colorimetric Methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 10(3), pp. 178-182.

Chang, Q., Zuo, Z., Harrison, F., & Chow, M. S. 2002. Hawthorn. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42(6), pp. 605-612. doi: 10.1177/00970002042006003

Degenring, F. H., Suter, A., Weber, M., & Saller, R. 2003. A randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a standardised extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan®) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II. Phytomedicine, 10(5), pp. 363-369. doi: 10.1078/0944-7113-00312

Dekić, B. R., Ristić, M. N., Mladenović, M. Z., Dekić, V. S., Ristić, N. R., Ranđelović, V., & Radulović, N. S. 2019. Diethyl-Ether Flower Washings of Dianthus cruentus Griseb. (Caryophyllaceae): Derivatization Reactions Leading to the Identification of New Wax Constituents. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 16(7): e1900153. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201900153

Dönmez, A. 2004. The Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) with Special Reference to Hybridisation and Biodiversity in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany, 28(1), pp. 29-37.

Edwards, J. E., Brown, P. N., Talent, N., Dickinson, T. A., & Shipley, P. R. 2012. A review of the chemistry of the genus Crataegus. Phytochemistry, 79, pp. 5–26. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.04.006

Elango, C., & Devaraj, S. N. 2010. Immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract in an experimental stroke model. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 7(1): 97. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-7-97

Fakir, H., Korkmaz, M., & Güller, B. 2009. Medicinal plant diversity of western Mediterrenean region in Turkey. Journal of Applied Biological. Science, 3(2), pp. 30–40.

García-Mateos, R., Ibarra-Estrada, E., & Nieto-Ángel, R. 2013. Antioxidant compounds in hawthorn fruits (Crataegus spp.) of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 84(4), pp. 1298-1304. doi: 10.7550/rmb.35675

Kancheva, V. D. 2009. Phenolic antioxidants - radical-scavenging and chain-breaking activity: A comparative study. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111, pp. 1072- 1089. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200900005

Kaur, C., & Kapoor, H. C. 2008. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables-the millennium’s health. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 36(7), pp. 703-725. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2001.00513.x

Keser, S., Celik, S., Turkoglu, S., Yilmaz, Ö., & Turkoglu, I. 2014. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq). Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 3(2), pp. 51-55. doi:10.5455/jice.20140120103320

Kirakosyan, A., Seymour, E., Kaufman, P. B., Warber, S., Bolling, S., & Chang, S. C. 2003. Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenolic Extracts from Leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) Subjected to Drought and Cold Stress. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, pp. 3973-3976. doi: 10.1021/jf030096r

Konyalioglu, S., Cebe, E. G., & Aktar, S. 2017. P 113 - Antioxidant activity of Crataegus Monogyna L flowers. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 108(1), S56. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.04.198.

Long, S. R., Carey, R. A., Crofoot, K. M., Proteau, P. J., & Filtz, T. M. 2006. Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay. Phytomedicine, 13(9-10), pp. 643-650. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2006.01.005

Mohsen, S. M., & Ammar, A. S. M. 2008. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of corn tassel extracts. Food Chemistry, 112(3), pp. 595-598. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.014

Nabavi, S. F., Habtemariam, S., Ahmed, T., Sureda, A., Daglia, M., Sobarzo-Sánchez, E., & Nabavi, S. M. 2015. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications. Nutrients, 7(9), pp. 7708-7728. doi: 10.3390/nu7095361.

Novais M. H., Santos, I., Mendes, S., & Pinto-Gomes, C. 2004. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Arrabida Natural Park (Portugal). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93(2-3), pp.183-195. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.015

Orhan, I., Özçelik, B., Kartal, M., Özdeveci, B., & Duman, H. 2007. HPLC Quantification of Vitexine-2ʹʹ-O-rhamnoside and Hyperoside in Three Crataegus Species and Their Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities. Chromatographia, 66, pp. 153-157. doi: 10.1365/s10337-007-0283-x

Özcan, M., Hacıseferoğulları, H., Marakoglu, T., & Arslan, D. 2005. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruit: some physical and chemical properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 69 (4), pp. 409–413. doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.08.032

Radulović, N. S., Mladenović, M. Z., Ristić, M. N., Dekić, V. S., Dekić, B. R., & Ristić, N. R. 2020. A new longipinane ketone from Achillea abrotanoides (Vis.) Vis.: chemical transformation of the essential oil enables the identification of a minor constituent. Phytochemical Analysis, published online. doi: 10.1002/pca.2913

Rice-Evans, C. A., Miller, N. J., & Paganga, G. 1996. Structure-antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 20(7), pp. 933-956. doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(95)02227-9

Rigelsky, J. M., & Sweet, B. V. 2002. Hawthorn: Pharmacology and therapeutic uses. American Journal of Health-System Pharmcy, 59(5), pp. 417-422. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/59.5.417

Singleton, V. L., Orthofer, R., & Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 299, pp. 152-178. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

Tadić, V. M., Dobrić, S., Marković, G. M., Đorđević, S. M., Arsić, I. A., Menković, N. R., & Stević, T. 2008. Anti-inflammatory, Gastroprotective, Free-Radical-Scavenging, and Antimicrobial Activities of Hawthorn Berries Ethanol Extract. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 56(17), pp. 7700–7709. doi: 10.1021/jf801668c

Zhang, D. L., Zhang, Y. T., Yin, J. J., & Zhao, B. L. 2004. Oral administration of Crataegus flavonoids protects against ischemia/reperfusion brain damage in gerbils. Journal of Neurochemistry, 90(1), pp. 211–219. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02480.x

Zhou, K., & Yu, L. 2004. Effects of extraction solvent on wheat bran antioxidant activity estimation. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 37(7), pp. 717-721. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2004.02.008

Živić, N., Milošević, S., Dekić, V., Dekić, B., Ristić, N., Ristić, M., & Sretić, Lj. 2019. Phytochemical and antioxidant screening of some extracts of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus L. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 37(5), pp. 351-358. doi: 10.17221/28/2019-CJFS

Original Scientific Paper