ELEMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS AND SOIL-TO-MOSS TRANSFER FACTORS OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF NORTH KOSOVO AND METOHIJA
This paper deals with investigations of elemental concentrations and soil-to-moss transfer factors of radionuclides in area of municipalities Kosovska Mitrovica and Zubin Potok. Twelve samples of soil and moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. were collected during May 2018. Transfer factors of radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40Kand 137Cs were calculated with regard to elemental concentrations of radionuclides in soil and moss samples. Analysis was done in order to indicate the different ways of adopting radionuclides by mosses. According to calculated transfer factors and analysis, authors concluded that the soil is dominant source of natural radionuclides and their concentration in moss occurred due to resuspension of soil particles, while artificial 137Cs is present in soil and moss samples as a consequence of atmospheric dry and wet deposition.
Aceto, M., Abollino, O., Conca, R., Malandrino, M., Mentasti, E., & Sarzanini, C. 2003. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators. Chemosphere 50, pp. 333–342. DOI;10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00533-7
Hydrometeorological Yearbook of Kosovo, 2017-2018. https://www.ammk-rks.net/?page=2,25
Čučulović A., Čučulović R., Sabovljević M., Radenković M.B., & Veselinović D. 2016. Natural radionuclide uptake by mosses in eastern Serbia in 2008-2013. Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju 67, pp. 31–37. DOI: 10.1515/aiht-2016-67-2695
Čučulović, A., Popović, D., Čučulović, R., & Ajtić, J. 2012. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in moss and lichen in Eastern Serbia. Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection 27, pp. 44–51. DOI: 10.2298/NTRP1201044Č
Dimitrijević, M. D. 1997. Geology of Yugoslavia. Geol. Inst. GEMINI, Belgrade.
Dolegowska, S. & Migaszewski Z.M. 2019. Biomonitoring with mosses: Uncertainties related to sampling period, intra-site variability, and cleaning treatments. Ecological Indicators 101, pp. 296–302. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.01.033
Dragović, S., Janković Lj., Onjia A., & Bačić G. 2006. Distribution of primordial radionuclides in surface soils from Serbia and Montenegro. Radiation Measurements 41, pp. 611 – 616. DOI:10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.03.007
Dragović, S., Janković-Mandić, Lj., Dragović, R., Đorđević, M., Đokić, M., & Kovačević, J. 2014. Lithogenic radionuclides in surface soils of Serbia: Spatial distribution and relation to geological formations. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 142, pp. 4–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.07.015
Dragović, S., & Mihailović, N. 2009. Analysis of mosses and topsoils for detecting sources of heavy metal pollution: multivariate and enrichment factor analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 157, pp. 383–390. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0543-8
Dragović, S., Mihailović N., & Gajić B. 2010. Quantification of transfer of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in mosses of a semi-natural ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 101, pp. 159–164. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.09.011
Džoljić, A. J., Stevović, M. S., Todorović, J. D., Polavder, M. S., Rajačić, M. M., & Krneta Nikolić, N. J. 2017. Natural and artificial radioactivity in some protected areas of south east Europe. Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, 32, pp. 334-341. DOI: 10.2298/NTRP1704334D
Fernandez, J. A., & Carballeira, A. 2000. Evaluation of contamination by different elements in terrestrial mosses. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40, pp. 461–468. DOI:10.1007/s002440010198
Frahm, J. P. 2009. A preliminary study of the infraspecific taxa of Hypnum cupressiforme in Europe. Archive for Biology 40, pp. 1–10. ISSN 0945-3466.
Grdović, S., Vitorović, G., Mitrović, B., Andrić, V., Petrujkić, B., & Obradović, M. 2010. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of feedstuffs, mosses and soil in the Belgrade environment, Serbia. Archives of Biological Sciences 62 (2), pp. 301-307. DOI:10.2298/ABS1002301G
IAEA, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments. Technical Report Series No. 364. IAEA, Vienna.
Ioannidou, A., & Papastefanou, C. 2006. Precipitation scavenging of 7Be and 137Cs radionuclides in air. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 85, pp.121–136. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.06.005
Ivanić M., Fiket Ž., Medunić G., Furdek Turk M., Marović G., Senčar J., & Kniewald G. 2019. Multi-element composition of soil, mosses and mushrooms and assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity of a pristine temperate rainforest system (Slavonia, Croatia). Chemosphere 215, pp. 668-677.
Ivanović, R., Valjarević, A., Vukoičić, D., & Radovanović, D. 2016. Climatic regions of Kosovo and Metohija. University Thought Publication in Natural Sciences, 6(1), pp. 49-54.
Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. 2001. Trace elements in soils and plants (3rd ed.). New York, London, Taylor and Francis Group Boca Ration: CRC Press
Kiliç, Ö., Belivermiş, M., Sıkdokur, E., Sezer, N., Erentürk, S.A., Haciyakupoglu, S., Madadzada, A., & Frontasyeva, M. 2019. Assessment of 210Po and 210Pb by moss biomonitoring technique in Thrace region of Turkey. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 322, pp. 699–706. DOI: 10.1007/s10967-019-06721-4
Krmar, M., Radnović, D., Hansman, J., Mesaroš, M., Betsou, C., Jakšić, T., & Vasić, P. 2018. Spatial distribution of 7Be and 137Cs measured with the use of biomonitors. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 318, pp. 1845–1854. DOI: 10.1007/s10967-018-6121-9
Mitrović, B., Ajtić, J., Lazić, M., Andrić, V., Krstić, N., Vranješ, B., & Vićentijević, M. 2016. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of Kopaonik mountain, Serbia. Environmental Pollution 215, pp. 273-279. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.05.031
Mitrović B., Vitorović G., Vitorović D., Pantelić G., Adamović I. 2009. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of mountain region of Serbia, Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11, pp. 383–388. DOI: 10.1039/b813102c
Popović, D., Todorović, D., Frontasyeva, M., Ajtić, J., Tasić, M., & Rajšić, S. 2008. Radionuclides and heavy metals in Borovac, Southern Serbia. Environmental Science & Pollution Research 15, pp. 509–520. DOI 10.1007/s11356-008-0003-6
Tsikritzis, L. I., Ganatsios, S. S., Duliu, O. G., & Sawidis, T. D. 2003. Natural and artificial radionuclides distribution in some lichens, mosses, and trees in the vicinity of lignite power plants from West Macedonia, Greece. Journal of trace and microprobe techniques 21, pp. 543–554. DOI:10.1081/TMA-120023070
Tzortzis, M., & Tsertos, H. 2004. Determination of thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 77, pp. 325–338. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.03.014
UNSCEAR, 2008. Report to the General Assembly, Annex B: Exposure of the public and workers from various sources of radiation. United Nations, New York.
Zechmeister, H. G. 1995. Growth rates of five pleurocarpous moss species under various climatic conditions. Journal of Bryology 18, pp. 455-468. DOI:10.1179/jbr.19188.8.131.525
Zhu, Y-G., & Smolders E. 2000. Plant uptake of radiocaesium: a review of mechanisms, regulation and application. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, pp.1635-1645. DOI:10.1093/jexbot/51.351.1635
Zolotareva, B. N., Skripnichenko, I. I., Ableev, M. Kh., Ostroumov, V. E., Geletyuk, N. I., Shitova (Koroleva), E. G., & Zablotskaya, L. V. 1983. Heavy metals in biogeocenoses of the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve, in Ecological Monitoring of the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve 56 (in Russian).
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.