The Comprehensive Approach to EU Crisis Management: Contexts, Lessons Identified, and Policy Implications
Contemporary military operations take place in complex environments that are pop- ulated by multiple civilian and humanitarian actors facing an array of challenging issues that are not precisely ‘military’ in nature. This has increased the importance of addressing and managing the civil-military interface, particularly that between military and humanitarian organisations. In recognising that their relationship is not harmonious, organisations such as the EU have de- veloped a so-called ‘Comprehensive Approach’ (CA) to better align the military and civilian re- sponses to fragile states. Surprisingly, the EU’s CA has been understudied while its counterparts at NATO and the UN have received much of the attention. This article fills that gap, and shows that although the CA is clearly visible in official EU documents, the EU’s practical challenges with implementing and ‘living’ it remain immense.
Aall, Pamela. 1996. “Nongovernmental Organisations and Peacemaking.” In Managing Global Chaos, edited by Charles A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, 433−444. Washington, D.C.: US Institute of Peace Press.
Borchert, Heiko, ed. 2006. Zu Neuen Ufern: Politische Führungskunst in einer vernetzten Welt. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Brigety, Reuben E. 2004. “From Three to One: Rethinking the “Three Block War” and Humanitarian Operations in Combat.” Paper presented at the Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics, January 29th and 30th, Springfield, VA.
Carment, David, and Yiagadeesen Samy. 2011. “Engaging Fragile States: Closing the Gap between Theory and Policy.” Global Dialogue 13 (1): 35−45.
Collier, Paul, and AnkeHoeffler. 2004. “Greed and Grievance in Civil War”. Oxford Economic Papers 56 (4): 563−595.
Council of the European Union. 2016. “Implementation Plan on Security and Defence.” 14392/16, Brussels.
Debiel, Tobias, Stephan Klingebiel, Andreas Mehler and Ulrich Schneckener. 2005. “Between Ignorance and Intervention: Strategies and Dilemmas of External Actors in Fragile States.” Policy Paper 23. Bonn: Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden (SEF).
Diehl, Paul F. 2014. “Future Directions for Peacekeeping Research: A Series of Commentaries.” International Peacekeeping 21(4): 481–483.
Egnell, Robert. 2009. Complex Peace Operations and Civil-Military Relations: Winning the Peace. New York: Routledge.
von Einsiedel, Sebastian. 2005. “Policy responses to state failure”. In Making States Work: State Failure and The Crisis of Governance, edited by Simon Chesterman, 13−35. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Council of the European Union. 2016. “Joint Staff Working Document: Taking forward the EU’s Comprehensive Approach to External Conflicts and Crises - Action Plan 2016-17.” SWD (2016) 254 final, Brussels.
Fanthorpe, Richard. 2005. “On the Limits of Liberal Peace: Chiefs and Democratic Decentralization in Post-War Sierra Leone.” African Affairs105(418): 27–49.
Feeny, Simon, Alberto Posso and Jonathan Regan-Beasley. 2015. “Handle with Care: Fragile States and the Determinants of Fragility.” Applied Economics 47(11): 1073−1085.
Friis Arne P., and Hans Binnendijk. 2007. “The Comprehensive Approach Initiative: Future Options for NATO.” Defence Horizon 58: 1−5.
Frith, Robert, and John Glenn. 2015. “Fragile States and the Evolution of Risk Governance: Intervention, Prevention and Extension.” Third World Quarterly 36(10): 1787−1808.
Fund for Peace. 2015. The Fragile States Index 2015. Accessed [07/13/2015]. http:// fsi.fundforpeace.org/rankings-2015.
Ghani, Ashraf, and Clare Lockhart. 2008. Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Goetze, Catherine, and BeritBliesemann de Guevara. 2014. “Cosmopolitanism and the Culture of Peacebuilding.” Review of International Studies 40(4): 771–802.
Goldstone, Jack A. 2008. “Pathways to State Failure.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 25(4): 285–296.
Greentree, Todd. 2013. “Bureaucracy Does Its Thing: US Performance and the Institutional Dimension of Strategy in Afghanistan.” The Journal of Strategic Studies 36(3): 338.
Hagel, Chuck. 2004. “A Republican Foreign Policy.” Foreign Affairs 83(4): 64–76.
Hauck, Volker, and Camilla Rocca. 2014. “Gaps Between Comprehensive Approaches of the EU and EU Member States.” Scoping Study. The Netherlands: European Centre for Development Policy Management.
Herbst, Geoffrey. 2004. “Let Them Fail: State Failure in Theory and Practice, Implications for Policy.” In When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, edited by Robert I. Rotberg, 302−318. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hettne, Björn. 2010. “Development and Security: Origins and Future.” Security Dialogue 41(1): 31−52.
ETH Zurich Centre for Security Studies. “The Security Development Nexus: An Illusion?” Accessed 26 March 2017. https://www.ethz.ch/content/specialinterest/ gess/cis/center-for-securities-studies/en/services/digital-library/articles/article. html/136942.
Gheciu, Alexandra. 2012. “Communities of Security Practices in the Age of Uncertainty.” Journal of Regional Security 7(2): 151−162.
Kammel, Arnold, and Benjamin Zyla. 2012. “Looking for a ‘Berlin-Plus in reverse’? NATO In Search for a New Strategic Concept.” Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs 55(4): 648−662.
Kaldor, Mary. 1999. New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Leggat, Andrew, Freyja Lockwood and Barry McGuinness. 2011. “Surveying NGO- Military Relations.” Paper presented at the 16th ICCRTS, June 21st to 23rd, Quebec, Canada.
Lemay-Hébert, Nicolas. 2009. “Statebuilding Without Nation-building? Legitimacy, State Failure and the Limits of the Institutionalist Approach.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 3(1): 21−45.
Maass, Citha. 2012. “Peace-Building and COIN in Afghanistan: The View of NGOs – What Is Really Needed?” In Afghanistan in the Balance: Counterinsurgency, Comprehensive Approach and Political Order, edited by Hans-Georg Ehrhart, Sven Gareis and Charles Pentland. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
MacGinty, Roger. 2018 “The limits of technocracy and local encounters: The European Union and peacebuilding.” Contemporary Security Policy 39(1): 166−179.
MacGinty, Roger, and Oliver Richmond. 2007. “Myth or Reality: Opposing Views on Liberal Peace and Post-War Reconstruction.” Global Society 21(4): 491−497.
Marriage, Zoë. 2011. “Divisive ‘Commonality’: State and Insecurity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Third World Quarterly 32(10): 1891−1910.
Menkhaus, Ken. 2004. “Vicious Circles and the Security Development Nexus in Somalia.” Conflict, Security & Development 4(2): 149−166.
Nay, Olivier. 2013. “Fragile and Failed States: Critical Perspectives and Conceptual Hybrids.” International Political Science Review 34 (3): 326−341.
Norvanto, Elisa. 2015. “Review of civilian and military synergies”, Deliverable 1.3., H2020 funded project “IECEU – Improving the Effectiveness of EU Capabilities in Conflict Prevention”, 105−108. Accessed May 20, 2018. http://www.ieceu-project. com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/IECEU_2016_NDU_Review_of_civil_military_ synergies.pdf.
Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. 2011. “The Failing State in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Global Dialogue 13(1): 70−81.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Development Assistance Committee. 2006. Whole of Government Approaches to Fragile States. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2009. “Concepts and Dilemmas of State Building in Fragile Situations: From Fragility to Resilience.” OECD Journal on Development 19(3): 1−76.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2016. “Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States” Accessed December 03, 2016. http://www.oecd.org/dac/governance-peace/conflictfragilityandresilience/ principlesforgoodinternationalengagementinfragilestates.htm.
Pirozzi, Nicoletta. 2013. “The EU’s Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management.” EU Crisis Management Papers Series. Brussels: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
Piazza, James. 2007. “Draining the Swamp: Democracy Promotion, State Failure, and Terrorism in 19 Middle Eastern Countries”. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30(3): 521−539.
Pienaar, Lyle. 2008. “State and State-Sponsored Terrorism in Africa: The Case of Libya and Sudan.” Strategic Review for Southern Africa 30(1): 49−70.
Richards, Anthony. 2014. “Conceptualizing Terrorism”. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(3): 213−236.
Safari, Gentil. 2014. “State Responsibility and the Right to Personal Security in the DRC: A Human Rights Law Perspective.” African Journal of Legal Studies 7(2): 233−251.
Shalamanov, Velizar. 2011. “Comprehensive C4ISR Approach: Bringing Nations, NATO, and the EU Together from Development to Operations”. In Capability Development in Support of Comprehensive Approaches: Transforming international Civil-Military Interactions, edited by Derrick J. Neal and Linton Wells II, 87−104. Washington, D.C.: Center for Technology and National Security Policy (CTNSP), Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University.
Shea, Jamie. 2009. “Afghanistan: now you see me?: NATO strategy-building the comprehensive approach.” IDEAS Reports − Strategic Updates. SU001. London, UK: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science.
Stern, Maria, and Joakim Öjendal. 2010. “Mapping the Security-Development Nexus: Conflict, Complexity, Cacophony, Convergence?” Security Dialogue 41(1): 5−29.
Stewart, Frances. 2004. “Development and Security.” Conflict, Security & Development 4(3): 261−288.
Sweeney, Simon, and Neill Winn. 2017. “CSDP and the Open Method of Coordination: Developing the EU’s Comprehensive Approach to Security.” Journal of Regional Security 12(2): 95−122.
Tikuisis, Peter. 2009. “On the Relationship Between Weak States and
Terrorism.” Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression 1(1): 66−79.
Tucker, Jasmine. 2014. “The President’s 2015 Budget in Pictures. National Priorities.” Accessed 12 September 2014. https://media.nationalpriorities.org/uploads/ publications/presidents-budget-in-charts-final.pdf.
United Nations. 2004. “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility.” Report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. A/59/565, New York.
United Nations Development Program. 2015. “Human Development Reports: Congo (Democratic Republic of the).” Accessed 11 March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/ en/countries/profiles/COD.
United Nations Development Program. 1994. Human Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.
United Nations Security Council. 2001. “Security Council Addresses Comprehensive Approach to Peace-Building.” UN Press Release SC/7014, 4278th Meeting. Accessed 10 March 2017. https://www.un.org/press/en/2001/sc7014.doc.htm.
Watson, Scott D. 2011. “‘Framing’ the Copenhagen School: Integrating the Literature on Threat Construction.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 40(2): 279−301.
Winslow, Donna. 2002. “Strange Bedfellows: NGOs and the Military in Humanitarian Crises.” International Journal of Peace Studies 7(2): 35−55.
World Bank. 2016. “Libya Overview.” Accessed 3 December 2016. http://www. worldbank.org/en/country/libya/overview.
World Bank. 2016. “Democratic Republic of the Congo: Overview > Strategy.” Accessed 10 March 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/drc/overview#2.
World Bank. 2011. “Conflict, Security, and Development.” Accessed 10 March 2017. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/WDR2011_Full_Text.pdf.
World Bank. 2011. “World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development.” Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank.
Zeidenstein, Harvey. 1994. “Defining Terrorism.” Southeastern Political Review 22(1): 17−35.
Authors retain copyright of the published papers and grant to the publisher the non-exclusive right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media.
The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY). It is allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and remix, transform, and build upon it for any purpose, even commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given to the original author(s), a link to the license is provided and it is indicated if changes were made. / The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA). It is allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and remix, transform, and build upon it for any purpose, even commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given to the original author(s), a link to the license is provided, it is indicated if changes were made and the new work is distributed under the same license as the original.
Users are required to provide full bibliographic description of the original publication (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages), as well as its DOI code. In electronic publishing, users are also required to link the content with both the original article published in Journal of Regional Security and the licence used.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted to deposit author’s pre-print / author’s post-print (accepted version) / publisher's version (PDF) of their work in an institutional repository, subject-based repository, author's personal website (including social networking sites, such as ResearchGate, Academia.edu, etc.), and/or departmental website prior or during the submission process / at any time after the acceptance of the manuscript / at any time after publication.
Full bibliographic information (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages) about the original publication must be provided and links must be made to the article's DOI and the license.