Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins
Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS) immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard cold-polymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary.
Ogle RE, Davis EL. Clinical wear study of three commercially available artificial tooth materials: thirty-six month results. J Prosthet Dent 1998; 79(2): 145−51.
Bettencourt AF, Neves CB, Almeida MS, Pinheiro LM, Oliveira SA, Lopes LP, et al. Biodegradation of acrylic based resins: A re-view. Dent Mater 2010; 26(5): e171−80.
Ali A, Bates JF, Reynolds AJ, Walker DM. The burning mouth sensation related to the wearing of acrylic dentures: an investi-gation. Br Dent J 1986; 161(12): 444−7.
van Joost T, van Ulsen J, van Loon LA. Contact allergy to denture materials in burning mouth syndrome. Contact Dermatitis 1998; 18(2): 97−99.
Moharram MA, Abdel NK, Abdel HN, Abou-Table ZA, Badr NA. Effect of cross-linking agents on the molecular properties of denture base resins. J Mater Sci 1992; 27(22): 6041−6.
Hongo T, Sato K, A Sato. Amounts of residual monomer leached from clinically used acrylic resin denture base. J Dent Mater 1994; 13(23): 252−3. (Japanese)
Jorge JH, Giampaolo ET, Machado AL, Vergani CE. Cytotoxicity of denture base acrylic resins: a literature review. J Prosthet Dent 2003; 90(2): 190−3.
Kostić M, Najman S, Kocić JS, Krunić N, Ajduković Z, Petrović D, et al. Effect of denture base resin extracts on HeLa cells growth in vitro. Hem Ind 2008; 62(3): 217−22.
International Standards Organization. ISO 20795-1: 2008. Dentistry Base Polymers Part 1: Denture Base Polymers. Ge-neva: ISO; 2008.
Boeckler A, Morton D, Poser S, Dette K. Release of dibenzoyl per-oxide from polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins: An in vitro evaluation. Dent Mater 2008; 24(12): 1602−7.
Babich H, Zuckerbraun HL, Wurzburger BJ, Rubin YL, Borenfreund E, Blau L. Benzoyl peroxide cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro with the human keratinocyte cell line, RHEK-1. Toxicology 1996; 106(1−3): 187−96.
Schmalz G. Use of cell cultures for toxicity testing of dental materials: Advantages and limitations. J Dent 1994; 22(Suppl 2): S6−11.
Hanks CT, Wataha JC, Sun Z. In vitro models of biocompati-bility: a review. Dent Mater 1996; 12(3): 186−93.
Zissis AJ, Polyzois GL, Yannikakis SA, Harrison A. Roughness of denture materials: a comparative study. Int J Prosthodont 2000; 13(2): 136−40.
Radford DR, Sweet SP, Challacombe SJ, Walter JD. Adherence of Candida albicans to denture-base materials with different sur-face finishes. J Dent 1998; 26(7): 577−83.
Satyanarayana D, Chatterji PR. Studies on the enzymatic and fungal degradation of cross-linked gelatin and its graft copol-ymers. J Polym Environ 1995; 3(3): 177−86.
Moztarzadeh F, Keyanpour-Rad M, Shabani V. Synthesis of a Pho-tocurable Dental Ionomer Cement Based on the Reaction of Acryloyl Chloride Coupling Compound with Acrylic/Itaconic Acids Copolymer. Iran Polym J 2003; 12(3): 211−6.
Preetha A, Banarjee R. Comparison of artificial saliva substitutes. Trends Biomater Artif Organs 2005; 18(2): 178−86.
International Organisation for Standardization. International Standard ISO 10993-5: Biological Evaluation of Medical De-vices - Part 5: Tests for in vitro cytotoxicity, 3rd. Geneva: ISO; 2009.
Pavarina AC, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Giampaolo ET, Teraoka MT. The effect of disinfectant solutions on the hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth. J Oral Rehabil 2003; 30(7): 749−52.
Mikai M, Koike M, Fujii H. Quantitative analysis of allergenic ingredients in eluate extracted from used denture base resin. J Oral Rehabil 2006; 33(3): 216−20.
Luckachan GE, Pillai CS. Biodegradable Polymers- A Review on Recent Trends and Emerging Perspectives. J Polym Envi-ron 2011; 19: 637−76.
Koda T, Tsuchiya H, Yamauchi M, Hoshino Y, Takagi N, Kawano J. High-performance liquid chromatographic estimation of elu-ates from denture base polymers. J Dent 1989; 17(2): 84−9.
Kalipçilar B, Karaağaçlioğlu L, Hasanreisoğlu U. Evaluation of the level of residual monomer in acrylic denture base materials having different polymerization properties. J Oral Rehabil 1991; 18(5): 399−401.
Cimpan MR, Matre R, Cressey LI, Tysnes B, Lie SA, Gjertsen BT, et al. The effect of heat- and auto-polymerized denture base pol-ymers on clonogenicity, apoptosis, and necrosis in fibroblasts: denture base polymers induce apoptosis and necrosis. Acta Odontol Scand 2000; 58(5): 217−28.
Jorge JH, Giampaolo ET, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Pavarina AC, Carlos IZ. Biocompatibility of denture base acrylic resins evalu-ated in culture of L929 cells. Effect of polymerisation cycle and post-polymerisation treatments. Gerodontology 2007; 24(1): 52−7.
Bartolini JA, Murchison DF, Wofford DT, Sarkar NK. Degree of conversion in denture base materials for varied polymerization techniques. J Oral Rehabil 2000; 27: 488−93.
Baker S, Brooks SC, Walker DM. The release of residual mon-omeric methyl methacrylate from acrylic appliances in the hu-man mouth: An assay for monomer in saliva. J Dent Res 1988; 67(10): 1295−9.
Lindh L. On the adsorption behaviour of saliva and purified salivary proteins at solid/liquid interfaces. Swed Dent J Suppl 2002; 152: 1−57.