• Muhannd Waleed Majeed Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Water Resources Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Lubna Mohammed Abd Mustansiriyah University
  • Aamer Najim Abbas Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Water Resources Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
Keywords: freshwater,, waste water, hospital,, sewer,, ultimate load, first crack, failure pattern, deflection


There was a serious water problem especially in the region close to the sewer treatment plants. Therefore, an effort has been made to utilize the waste water from the sewer treatment plants for building purposes, so that the water problem can be greatly minimized and the waste water can be properly disposed of  for good environmental conservation. Foundation panels in severe curing conditions performed by hospital waste water and   sewer waste water.. This article highlights an experimental analysis on the behavior of concrete foundations in severe curing conditions performed by hospital waste water and sewer waste water. The experiment measured ultimate load, first crack load, load-deflection behavior, stiffness and evaluated the crack pattern of 12 reinforced concrete foundation panels after curing the specimens for 28 days. The results of the test indicate that the use of hospital and sewer waste water could reduce the strength, stiffness and accelerate damage of tested panels. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, etc. were examined by pouring various concrete samples in the element of cubes, cylinders and prisms, etc. and were concluded to be acceptable.


Mccormac, C. J and Brown, H. R., "Design of reinforced concrete 9 edition", USA, 2014, Published by Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.

Mashhour, G., and Mahmoud, E., "Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 2 edition", cario, 2007, AL-Balagh Publishing Company.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Corrosion cost and preventive strategies in the United States, FHWA-RD-01-156, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, McLean, VA; 2002.

Andrade, C., Alonso, C. and Molina, F. J.,” Cover cracking as a function of bar corrosion: part 1 – Experimental test”, Materials and Structures, Vol.26, 1993, pp.453–464.

Ferreira, M., Montemo, M. and Simoes, A.,“ Chlorideinduced corrosion on reinforcing steel: From the fundamentals to the monitoring techniques”, Cement Concrete Compos., Vol.25, No.4, 2003, pp.491-502.

Apostolopoulos, C., “ Mechanical behavior of concrete steel bars of monumental structures”, Proceedings of the second Panhellenic conference on appropriate interventions for the safeguarding of monuments historical buildings, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2004.

Leung, K. Y., “Modeling of concrete cracking induced by steel expansion”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, May-June.

Allan, M. L., Cherry, B. W.,” Factors controlling the amount of corrosion for cracking in reinforced concrete”, Corrosion (Houston), Vol.48, No.5, 1992, pp. 426–430.

Bentur, A., and Jaegermann, C., "Effect of Curing in Hot Climate on the Development of the Properties of the Outer Skin of Concrete", Proceedings, FIP International Symposium, Jerusalem, Sept. 1988, pp. 45-52.

Hou, J., Chung, D. D. L., “Effect of admixtures in concrete on the corrosion resistance of steel-reinforced concrete”, Corrosion Science, 2000, Vol. 42, pp.1489–507.

Herrera, M. J., Torres-Acosta, A. A., Perez-Quiroz, J. T, Martinez, M.,” Electrochemical evaluation of galvanized rebars in alkaline solutions with an inhibitor, In: Corrosion of infrastructure, chapter 3; Cementitious systems—monitoring, ECS transactions”, The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 3, Issue 13. 2007. p. 139.

Alonso, C., Andrade, C., Rodriguez, J., and Diez, J. M., “Factors Controlling Cracking of Concrete Affected by Reinforcement Corrosion”, RILEM, Materials and Structures, Vol. 31, Aug.-Sept. 1998, pp. 435-441.

Hamad. B. S, Mike, J. A.,” Experimental investigation of hot-dip galvanized reinforcement in normal and high strength concrete”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 100, No.4, 2003, pp. 465–470.

Hamad, B. S, Jirsa, J. O., D’Abreu, N. I.,”Anchorage strength of epoxy coated hooked bars”, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 90, No.2, 1993, pp.210–217.

Jandin, G., Liao, H., Feng, Z. Q., and Coddet, C., “Correlations between operating conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties of twin wire arc sprayed steel Coatings”, Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 349, A 2003, pp. 298–305.

Original Scientific Paper