• Valentina Baić University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Zvonimir M. Ivanović University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies, Belgrade, Serbia
  • Milan Veljković


Abstract: The paper presents research aimed at examining the significance of increased cognitive load on the generation of verbal and vocal signs in false and true expressions. The results of previous research indicate the importance of this concept in the assessment of lying. The research involved 100 respondents (47 men and 53 women), students of the master's studies of criminalistics at the University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies, aged 23-44. Respondents had the task, based on the observation of twenty carefully selected videos (10 true statements and 10 false statements), to mark the frequency of each individual verbal and vocal sign, on a previously generated and prepared list. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference in terms of the frequency of all verbal and vocal signs in a false or true statement: response latency (Z = -3.931, p = 0.000), speech hesitation (p = 0.000), speech errors (p = 0.000)), speech rate (Z = -3.921, p = 0.000), number of spoken words in the utterance (Z = -3.921, p = 0.000) and length of utterance (Z = -3.923, p = 0.000). Response latency, speech hesitation, and speech errors have higher median values ​​in false utterances than in true ones, while speech rate, number of words spoken, and length of utterance show higher median values ​​in true than false utterances.


Baić, V., Areh, I. (2015). Detekcija laganja. Beograd: Sinapsa edicije.

Baić, V., Batić, S. (2013). Značaj koncepta povećanog kognitivnog opterećenja u detekciji laganja. A. Kostić (Ur.), Zbornik radova sa XIX naučnog skupa Empirijska istraživanja u psihologiji, (str.19-24). Beograd: Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Baić, V., Deljkić, I., Ivanović, Z. (2020). Analiza učestalosti neverbalnih znakova povezanih s obmanom kod osumnjičenika. Policija i sigurnost, 29(3),189-200.

Benus, S., Enos, F., Hirschberg, J., & Shriberg, E. (2006). Pauses in Deceptive Speech. Proceedings ISCA 3rd International Conference on Speech Prosody, Dresden, Germany.
Buller, D. B., & Burgoon, J. K. (1996). Interpersonal deception theory. Communication Theory, 6, 203-242.

Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B., Floyd, K., & Grandpre, J. (1996). Deceptive realities: Sender, receiver, and observer perspectives in deceptive conversations. Communication Research, 23, 724-748.

Clark, H. H, & Fox Tree, J. E. (2002). Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking. Cognition, 84, 73-111.

Cody, M. J., Lee, W. S., & Chao, E. Y. (1989). Telling lies: Correlates of deception among Chinese. In J. P. Forgas & J. M. Innes (Eds.), Recent advances in social psychology: An international perspective (pp. 359–368). North Holland, the Netherlands: Elsevier.

Colwell, K., Hiscock, C. K., & Memon, A. (2002). Interview techniques and the assessment of statement credibility. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 287-300.

DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J., Malone, E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2003). Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1),74-118.

deTurck, M. A., & Miller, G. R. (1985). Deception and arousal: Isolating the behavioral correlates of deception. Human Communication Research, 12, 181-201.

Ebesu, A. S., & Miller, M. D. (1994). Verbal and nonverbal behaviors as a function of deception type. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 13, 418-442.

Eysenck, M. W., & Eysenck, M. C. (1979). Processing depth, elaboration of encoding, memory store and expended processing capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 472-484.

Granhag, P. A., & Vrij, A. (2005). Deception detection. In N. Brewer & K. Williams (Eds.), Psychology and law: An empirical perspective (pp. 43-92). New York: Guilford Press.

Ivanović, Z., Baić, V. (2019). Taktika obezbeđivanja iskaza. Beograd: Kriminalističko policijski univerzitet.

Johnston, W. A., & Heinz, S. P. (1979). Depth of non-target processing in an attention task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 5, 168-175.

Knapp, L. M., & Hall, A. J. (2002). Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Kohnken, G. (1989). Behavioral correlates of statement credibility: Theories, paradigms and results. In H. Wegner, F. Losel, & Haisch (Eds.), Criminal behavior and the justice system: Psychological perspectives (p.p. 271-289). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y. (2016). A Guideline of Selecting and Reporting Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Reliability Research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15, 155-163.

Logan, G. D. (1979). On the use of a concurrent memory load to measure attention and automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5 (2), 189-207.

Mann, S., Vrij, A., & Bull, R. (2002). Suspects, lies and videotape: An analysis of authentic high-stakes liars. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 365-376.

Milić, N. (2006). Policijsko saslušanje osumnjičenog. Beograd: Policijska akademija.

National Research Council (2003). The polygraph and lie detection. Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph. Washington, DC: The National Academic Press.

Nigro, G. N., Buckley, M. A., Hill, D. E., & Nelson, J. (1989). When juries ‘hear’ children testify: the effects of eyewitness age and speech style on juror’s perceptions of testimony. In S. J. Ceci, D. E. Ross, & M. P. Toglia (Eds.), Perspectives on children’s testimony (pp. 57-70). New York: Springer-Verlag

Shepherd, E. (1993). Aspects of police interviewing. Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology. Leicester: The British Psychological Society.

Sporer, S. L., & Schwandt, B. (2007). Moderators of nonverbal indicators of deception. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 13, 1-34.

Shulman, H. G. & Fisher, R. P. (1972). Expected value as a determinant of the distribution of attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 343-348.

Sporer, S. L., & Schwandt, B. (2006). Paraverbal indicators of deception: A meta-analytic synthesis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 421-446.

Undeutsch, U. (1984). Courtroom evaluation of eyewitnes testimony. International Review of Applied psychology, 33, 51-67.

Vrij, A., Edward, K., & Bull, R. (2001a). People’s insight into their own behaviour and speech content while lying. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 373-389.

Vrij, A., Edward, K., & Bull, R. (2001b). Police officers’ ability to detect deceit: The benefit of indirect deception detection measures. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 6,(2), 185-197.

Vrij, A., Fisher, R., Mann, S., & Leal, S. (2006). Detecting deception by Manipulating cognitive load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 141-142.

Vrij, A., Fisher, R., Mann, S., & Leal, S. (2008). A cognitive load approach to lie detection. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5, 39-43.

Vrij, A., Foppes, J. H., Volger, D. M., &Winkel, F.W. (1992). Moeilijk te bepalen wie de waarheid spreekt: Non-verbaal gedrag belangrijkste indicator. Algemeen Politie Blad, 141, 13-15.

Vrij, A., Granhag, P. A., & Porter, S. B. (2010). Pitfalls and opportunities in nonverbal and verbal lie detection. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11, 89-121.

Vrij, A., & Heaven, S. (1999). Vocal and verbal indicators of deception as a function of lie complexity. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 5, 203-315.

Vrij, A., & Mann, S. (2001). Telling and detecting lies in a high-stake situation: The case of a convicted murderer. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 187-203.

Vrij, A., & Mann, S. (2003). Deceptive responses and detecting deceit. In P. W. Halligan, C. Bass, & D. Oakley (Eds.), Malingering and illness deception: Clinical and theoretical perspectives (pp. 348-362). Oxford, England: University Press.

Vrij, A., Mann, S., Kristen, S., & Fisher, R. P. (2007). Cues to deception and ability to detect lies as a function of police interview styles. Law and Human Behavior, 31(5), 499-518.

Vrij, A., & Winkel, F. W. (1991). Cultural patterns in Dutch and Surinam nonverbal behavior: An analysis of simulated police/citizen encounters. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 15, 169-184.

Walczyk, J. J., Roper, K. S., Seemann, E., & Humphrey, A. M. (2003). Cognitive mechanisms underlying lying to questions: Response time as a cue to deception. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 755-774.

Walczyk, J. J., Schwartz, J. P., Clifton, R., Adams, B., Wei, M., & Zha, P. (2005). Lying person-to-person about live events: A cognitive framework for lie detection. Personnel Psychology, 58, 141-170.

Zuckerman, M., DePaulo, B.M., & Rosenthal, R. (1981). Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.). Advances in experimental social psychology, 14, 1-59.

Zulawski, D. E. & Wicklander, D. E. (2001). Practical aspects of interview and interrogation (2nd ed.). New York: CRC Press.
Original Scientific Papers