Efficacy of fungicides with different modes of action in raspberry spur blight (Didymella applanata) control
Efficacy trials of four multi-site fungicides (copper hydroxide, mancozeb, chlorothalonil
and dithianon), as well as six fungicides with specific modes of action (fluopyram, boscalid, fluazinam, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin) in raspberry spur blight (Didymella applanata) control were carried out in the seasons 2014 and 2016. The experiments were conducted as a randomized block design with four replicates in a commercial raspberry orchard in the locality Trešnjevica (Arilje) in western Serbia. All fungicides were applied preventively, four times until the beginning of harvest and once after harvest. The effects of the products tested were assessed three weeks after the last fungicide application according to the intensity of cane infection. Disease severity in control (untreated) plots were 53.7 (2014) and 76.3% (2016). In both years, the highest efficacy was achieved by tebuconazole (96.3 and 99.6%), followed by fluopyram (95.7 and 99.3%) and boscalid (94.7 and 95.9%). The broad-spectrum multi-site fungicides mancozeb, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide and dithianon were effective against D. applanata and they reduced disease severity significantly, in comparison with the untreated plots. The efficacy of these compounds was between 64.4 and 81.7%. Conversely, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and fluazinam showed very low efficacy
(13.7-37.8%) in control of raspberry spur blight.
Anonymous (2015). Plant protection products on the Serbian market. Biljni lekar (Plant Doctor), 41(1-2), 234-236.
Bartlett, D.W., Clough, J.M., Godwin, J.R., Hall, A.A., Hamer, M., & Parr-Dobrzanski, B. (2002). The strobilurin fungicides. Pest Management Science, 58, 649-662. doi 10.1002/ps.520
Dimitrijević, M., & Petronijević, M. (1976)..Prilog proučavanju zaštite maline od Didymella applanata (Niessl) Sacc (Control of Didymella applanata on raspberry). Zaštita bilja, 137/138, 273-278.
EU Pesticides Database (2014). Active substances. Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/public/?event=homepage&language=EN
Faby, R. (2008). Control of cane diseases in raspberries. Acta Horticulturae 777, 323-326. doi 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.777.48
Fernandez-Ortuno, D., Tores, J.A., de Vicente, A., & Perez-Garcia, A. (2008), Mechanisms of resistance to QoI fungicides in phytopathogenic fungi. International Microbiology, 11(1), 1-9.
Fox, R.T.V. (2006). Spur blight of raspberry. Mycologist, 20(2), 77.
Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) (2016). FRAC Code List 2016: Fungicides sorted by mode of action (including FRAC Code numbering). Retrieved from http://www.frac.info/docs/default-source/publications/frac-code-list/frac-code-list-2017-final.pdf?sfvrsn=2
Golembiewski, R.C., Vargas, J.M., Jones, A.L.,Jr., & Detweiler, A.R. (1995). Detection of demethylation inhibitor (DMI) resistance in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa population. Plant Disease, 79, 491-493.
Gubler, W.D., & Ypema, H.L. (1996). Occurrence of resistance in Uncinula necator to triadimefon, myclobutanil, and fenarimol in California grapevines. Plant Disease, 80, 902-909.
Guo, Z., Miyoshi, H., Komyoji, T., Haga, T., & Fujita, T. (1991). Uncoupling activity of a newly developed fungicide, fluazinam [3-chloro-N-(3-chloro-2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridinamine]. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics, 1056(1), 89–92.
Josifović, M. (1941): Bolesti voćaka (Plant diseases ). Belgrade, Serbia: Srpska kraljevska akademija.
Karaoglanidis, G.S., Ioannidis, P.M., & Thanassoulopoulos, C.C. (2000). Reduced sensitivity of Cercospora beticola isolates to sterol demethylation-inhibiting fungicides. Plant Pathology, 49 (5), 567-572.
Koller, W., Wilcox, W.F., Barnard, J., Jones, A.L., Braun, P.G. (1997). Detection and quantification of resistance of Venturia inaequalis populations to sterol demethylation inhibitors. Phytopathology, 87(2),184-190.
Lousberg, R.J.J.C., Holland, G.J.J., Minderhoud, L., Salemink, C.A., Foppen, F.H., van Broekhoven, L.W. ... Tuttobello, L. (1973): Production of the raspberry phytotoxin of Didymella applanata (Niessl) Sacc. Journal of Phytopathology, 76 (2), 133-141.
McGrath, M.T., & Shishkoff, N. (2001). Resistance to triadimefon and benomyl: dynamics and impact on managing cucurbit powdery mildew. Plant Disease, 85(2),147-154.
Mikulic-Petkovsek, M., Schmitzer, V., Stampar, F., Veberic, R., & Koron, D. (2014). Changes in phenolic content induced by infection with Didymella applanata and Leptosphaeria coniothyrium, the causal agents of raspberry spur and cane blight. Plant Pathology, 63 (1),185-192.
Mirković, B., Tanović, B., Hrustić, J., Mihajlović, M., Stević, M., Delibašić,G., & Vukša, P. (2015a). Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminats, and Agricultural Wastes, 50 (3), 175-183.
Nikolić, M., Ivanović, М., Milenković, S., Milivojević, Ј., & Milutinović, М. (2008). The state and prospects of raspberry production in Serbia. Acta Horticulturae, 777, 243-250.
Ranković, M., & Garić, R. (1996): Bolesti maline (Raspberry diseases). Biljni lekar 24 (2), 114-120.
Stammler, G., Brix, H.D., Glattli, A., Semar, M., & Schoefl, U. (2007). Biological properties of the carboxamide boscalid including recent studies on its mode of action. In McKim, E.M. (Ed.), Proceedings XVI International Plant Protection Congress, Glasgow (pp 40-45). Alton, UK: British Crop Production Council.
Statistica for Windows (data analysis system), version 6 [Computer software]. (2001). Retrieved from www.statsoft.com
Stevanović, M., Dolovac, N., Trkulja, N., Milosavljević, A., Kuzmanović, S., & Aleksić, G. (2014). Suzbijanje Didymella applanata u zasadima maline primenom novijih organskih fungicida tokom vegetacije (Control of Didymella applanata in raspberry orchards using new organic fungicides during vegetation). Zaštita bilja, 65(1), 27-32.
Stević, M., Vukša, P., & Elezović, I. (2010). Resistance of Venturia inaequalis to demethylation inhibiting (DMI) fungicides. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 97(4), 65-72.
Williamson, B. (1991). Spur blight. In Ellis, M.A., Converse, R.H., Williams, R.N., Williamson, B. (Eds.), Compendium of raspberry and blackberry diseases and insects (pp 7-9.). St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press.
Williamson, B. (2003). A possible resurgence of minor fungal diseases of Rubus caused by reductions in fungicide use. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, 26 (2), 139-146.
Williamson, B., & Hargreaves, A.J. (1981). Effects of Didymella applanata and Botrytis cinerea on axillary buds, lateral shoots and yield of red raspberry. Annals of Applied Biology, 97 (1), 55-64.
Yanase, Y., Yoshikawa, Y., Kishi, J., & Katsuta, H. (2007). The history of complex II inhibitors and the discovery of penthiopyrad. In Ohkawa, H., Miyagawa, H., Lee, P.W. (Eds.), Pesticide Chemisty: Crop Protection, Public Health, Environmental Safety. (pp 295-303.) Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.
Zehr, E.I., Luszcz, L.A., Olien, W.C., Newall, W.C., & Toler, J.E. (1999). Reduced sensitivity in Monilinia fructicola to propiconazole following prolonged exposure in peach orchards. Plant Disease, 83(10), 913-916.
Authors retain copyright of the published papers and grant to the publisher the non-exclusive right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media.
The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA). It is allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and remix, transform, and build upon it for any purpose, even commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given to the original author(s), a link to the license is provided, it is indicated if changes were made and the new work is distributed under the same license as the original.
Users are required to provide full bibliographic description of the original publication (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages), as well as its DOI code. In electronic publishing, users are also required to link the content with both the original article published in Pesticidi i fitomedicina (Pesticides and Phytomedicine) and the licence used.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.