KINESTHETIC AND VISUAL IMAGERY IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH CHRONIC NECK PAIN
Background:Young adults complain of neck pain almost every year. In recent years the ability of motor imagery (kinesthetic and visual imagery) in many musculoskeletal system problems other than neck pain in young adults has been investigated in the literature. The Cross-Sectional study aimed to question motor imagery ability in young adults with chronic neck pain.
Methods: Two groups were included in the study: the chronic neck pain group (n = 83) and the control group (n = 91). Motor imagery ability of both groups was evaluated with Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3. Additionally, in the chronic neck pain group, pain was evaluated with the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire, disability was evaluated with the Neck Disability Index, and kinesiophobia was evaluated with Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia.
Conclusions: Internal visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery were significantly different between chronic neck pain and control groups. There was a negative linear relationship between disability and internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, and kinesthetic imagery. Motor imagery ability is reduced in young adults with chronic neck pain. In addition, as the severity of disability increases, the motor imagery ability decreases. Therefore, it is considered appropriate to include a motor imagery training program when treating chronic neck pain in the future.
Oksanen AM, Laimi K, Löyttyniemi E, Kunttu K. Trends of weekly musculoskeletal pain from 2000 to 2012: National study of Finnish university students. Eur J Pain.2014;18(9):1316-22. doi:10.1002/j.1532-2149.2014.492.x
Mokdad AH, Forouzanfar MH, Daoud F, Mokdad AA, El Bcheraoui C, Moradi-Lakeh M, et al. Global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors for young people's health during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2016;387(10036):2383-401.doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00648-6
Mario DM, Carla V, Paolo P, Antonio R. Structural and functional changes of cervical neuromuscular system associated with ınsidious onset mechanical neck pain: a literature review. Int J Phys Ther Rehab. 2015;1(1). Doi:10.15344/2455-7498/2015/103
DePauw R, Coppieters I, Meeus M, Caeyenberghs K, Danneels L, Cagnie B. Is traumatic and non-traumatic neck pain associated with brain alterations? - a systematic review. Pain Physician. 2017;20(4):245-260. Doi:10.36076/ppj.2017.260
De Pauw R, Coppieters I, Caeyenberghs K, Kregel J, Aerts H, Lenoir D, et al. Associations between brain morphology and motor performance in chronic neck pain: A whole-brain surface-based morphometry approach. Hum Brain Mapp. 2019;40(14):4266-78. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24700.
Lotze M, Moseley GL. Role of distorted body image in pain. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007;9(6):488-96. Doi:10.1007/s11926-007-0079-x
Breckenridge JD, Ginn KA, Wallwork SB, McAuley JH. Do people with chronic musculoskeletal pain have ımpaired motor ımagery? A meta-analytical systematic review of the left/right judgment task. J Pain. 2019;20(2):119-32. Doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2018.07.004
Dickstein R, Deutsch JE. Motor imagery in physical therapist practice. Phys Ther. 2007;87(7):942-53. Doi:10.2522/ptj.20060331
McAvinue LP, Robertson IH. Measuring motor imagery ability: a review. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 2008;20(2):232-51. Doi:10.1080/09541440701394624
Ravat S PT, Olivier B PT, Gillion N PT, Lewis F PT. Laterality judgment performance between people with chronic pain and pain-free individuals. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiother Theory Pract. 2020;36(12):1279-99. doi: 10.1080/09593985.2019.1570575.
Hall CR, Pongrac J. Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Faculty of Physical Education, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.1983.
Williams SE, Cumming J, Ntoumanis N, Nordin-Bates SM, Ramsey R, Hall C. Further validation and development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;34(5):621-46. Doi:10.1123/jsep.34.5.621
Dilek B, Ayhan C, Yakut Y. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the movement imagery questionnaire-3: Its cultural adaptation and psychometric properties. Neurol Sci Neurophysiol. 2020;37(4):221-7. Doi:10.4103/nsn.nsn_30_20
Melzack, R., Katz, J. McGill Pain Questionnaire. In: Gebhart GF, Schmidt RF. (eds) Encyclopedia of Pain. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2013, pp 1792-4. Doi:10.1007/978-3-642-28753-4_2298
Yakut Y, Yakut E, Bayar K, Uygur F. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version short-form McGill pain questionnaire in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;26(7):1083-7. Doi:10.1007/s10067-006-0452-6
Vernon H, Mior S. The Neck Disability Index: a study of reliability and validity. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991;14(7):409-15.
Aslan E, Karaduman A, Yakut Y, Aras B, Simsek IE, Yaglý N. The cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of neck disability index in patients with neck pain: a Turkish version study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33(11):E362-5. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31817144e1.
Miller RP, Kori S, Todd D. The Tampa Scale: a measure of kinesiophobia. Clin J Pain.1991;7(1):51–2.
Tunca Yılmaz O, Yakut Y, Uygur F, Uluğ N. Tampa Kinezyofobi Ölçeği'nin Türkçe versiyonu ve test-tekrar test güvenirliği. Fizyoter Rehabil. 2011;22(1):44-9. Turkish version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia and its test-retest reliability.
La Touche R, Grande‐Alonso M, Cuenca‐Martínez F, Gónzález‐Ferrero L, Suso‐Martí L, Paris‐Alemany A. Diminished kinesthetic and visual motor ımagery ability in adults with chronic lower back pain. PM R. 2019;11(3):227-35. Doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2018.05.025
Elsig S, Luomajoki H, Sattelmayer M, Taeymans J, Tal-Akabi A, Hilfiker R. Sensori motor tests, such as movement control and laterality judgment accuracy, in persons with recurrent neck pain and controls. A case-control study. Man Ther. 2014;19(6):555-61. Doi:10.1016/j.math.2014.05.014
Richter HO, Röijezon U, Björklund M, Djupsjöbacka M. Long-Term adaptation to neck/shoulder pain and perceptual performance in a hand laterality motor ımagery test. Perception. 2010;39(1):119-30. Doi:10.1068/p6418
Pedler A, Motlagh H, Sterling M. Laterality judgments are not impaired in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Man Ther. 2013;18(1):72-6. Doi:10.1016/j.math.2012.07.006
Gong G, Rosa-Neto P, Carbonell F, Chen ZJ, He Y, Evans AC. Age- and gender-related differences in the cortical anatomical network. J Neurosci. 2009;29(50):15684-93. Doi:10.1523/jneurosci.2308-09.2009
Papegaaij S, Taube W, Baudry S, Otten E, Hortobágyi T. Aging causes a reorganization of cortical and spinal control of posture. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014;6:28. Doi:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00028
Nebli A, Rekik I. Gender differences in cortical morphological networks. Brain Imaging Behav. 2020;14(5):1831-9. doi: 10.1007/s11682-019-00123-6.
Yang S, Chang MC. Chronic Pain: Structural and functional changes in brain structures and associated negative affective states. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(13):3130. doi: 10.3390/ijms20133130.
Tsay A, Allen TJ, Proske U, Giummarra MJ. Sensing the body in chronic pain: A review of psychophysical studies implicating altered body representation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015;52:221–32. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.03.004
Mulder T. Motor imagery and action observation: cognitive tools for rehabilitation. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2007;114(10):1265-78. doi: 10.1007/s00702-007-0763-z.
Ozcan O, Karaali HK, Ilgın D, Gunduz OS, Kara B. Effectiveness of motor imagery training on functionality and quality of life in chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Exercise Therapy and Rehabilitation. 2019;6(1):1-9.
Copyright (c) 2022 Sanamed
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Journal Sanamed is published under an Open Access license. All its content is available free of charge. Users can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search the full text of articles, as well as establish HTML links to them, without having to seek the consent of the author or publisher.
The right to use content without consent does not release the users from the obligation to give the credit to the journal and its content in a manner described under CC BY.