The Gastroprotective Role of Yellow Kepok Banana (Musa x Paradisiaca L. var. Kepok) Peel Extract and Influence on Markers of Oxidative Stress: Malondialdehyde and Nitric Oxide

  • Amin Samiasih Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Khoiriyah Khoiriyah Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Stalis Norma Ethica Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Ayu Rahmawati Sulistyaningtyas Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Satriya Pranata Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Antonius Rino Vanchapo STIkes Faathir Husada Tangerang
Keywords: Banana peel, Malondialdehyde, Nitric oxide, Gastroprotection


Background/Aim: Flavonoids, tannins, saponins and polyphenols in yellow kepok banana (Musa x paradisiaca L. var. kepok) peel potentially could be a solution for peptic ulcer prevention. This study aims to prove the efficacy of kepok banana peel extract as gastroprotective by analysing the number of gastric ulcers and through markers of oxidative stress - malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO).

Methods: The study was performed on 33 female Wistar rats aged 3-4 months, weighed 100-250 g. Rats were divided into 3 groups: Musa Paradisiaca Var Kepok 1 (MPVK1) treatment group, Musa Paradisiaca Var Kepok 2 (MPVK2) and control group (K). In MPVK1 a dose of kepok banana peel extract at a dose of 80 mg / 200 g body weight (BW) was given and the MPVK 2 group dose was 160 mg / 200 g BW. The gastritis induction was performed by using 5 % acetylsalicylic acid at a dose of 1500 mg/kg BW. MDA examination by HPLC method, NO examination by ELISA method and macroscopic examination by counting the number of ulcers on the gastric mucosa was performed.

Results: The results showed that the lowest average MDA level was in the MPVK2 group which was 3.27, whereas the highest average NO level was in the MPVK2 group 286.17. The highest mean number of ulcers was in the control group at 3.55. By analysing all the results it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in the average levels of MDA (p = 0.013), NO (p < 0.001) and the number of ulcers (p < 0.001) of the three groups.

Conclusion: Banana peel extract was proven to be effective as a gastroprotective through markers of MDA, NO and the number of ulcers in Wistar rats.


1. Tytgat GN. Etiopathogenetic principles and peptic ulcer disease classification. Dig Dis 2011;29(5):454-8.

2.    Li K, Gesang L. Oxidative stress is associated with the gastric mucosa lesion of the Tibetans with high-altitude polycythemia. Int J Clin Exp Med 2019;12(3):2503–10.

3.    El-Meligy RM, Awaad AS, Soliman GA, Kenawy SA, Alqasoumi SI. Prophylactic and curative anti-ulcerogenic activity and the possible mechanisms of action of some desert plants. Saudi Pharm J 2017 Mar;25(3):387-96.

4.    Dionisio KL, Phillips K, Price PS, Grulke CM, Williams A, Biryol D, et al. The Chemical and Products Database, a resource for exposure-relevant data on chemicals in consumer products. Sci Data 2018 Jul 10;5:180125. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2018.125.

5.    Zulaikhah ST. The role of antioxidant to prevent free radicals in the body. Sains Med 2017;8(1):39. doi: 10.30659/sainsmed.v8i1.1012.

6.    Flower R. What are all the things that aspirin does? BMJ 2003 Sep 13;327(7415):572-3.

7.    Sharifi-Rad M, Anil Kumar NV, Zucca P, Varoni EM, Dini L, Panzarini E, et al. Lifestyle, oxidative stress, and antioxidants: back and forth in the pathophysiology of chronic diseases. Front Physiol 2020 Jul 2;11:694. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00694.

8.    Sharifi-Rad M, Fokou PVT, Sharopov F, Martorell M, Ademiluyi AO, Rajkovic J, et al. Antiulcer agents: From plant extracts to phytochemicals in healing promotion. Molecules 2018 Jul 17;23(7):1751. doi: 10.3390/molecules23071751.

9.    Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S. Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014;2014:360438. doi: 10.1155/2014/360438.

10. Dhama K, Latheef SK, Dadar M, Samad HA, Munjal A, Khandia R, et al. Biomarkers in stress related diseases/disorders: diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic values. Front Mol Biosci 2019 Oct 18;6:91. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2019.00091.

11. Domínguez R, Pateiro M, Gagaoua M, Barba FJ, Zhang W, Lorenzo JM. A comprehensive review on lipid oxidation in meat and meat products. Antioxidants 2019;8(10):1–31.

12. Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyou A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai A. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medicinal plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: an overview. Medicines (Basel) 2018 Aug 25;5(3):93. doi: 10.3390/medicines5030093.

13. Soesanto E, Pranata S, Rejeki S, Irham LM. The role of bamboo shoot Gigantochloa Apus extract in decreasing the IL-17/IL-10 ratio level in the atherosclerosis process. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2021;9(A):817–21.

14. Amang AP, Mezui C, Siwe GT, Emakoua J, Mbah G, Nkwengoua EZ, et al. Healing and antisecretory effects of aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on unhealed gastric ulcers. Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:1924320. doi: 10.1155/2017/1924320.

15. Rao USM, Ahmad BA, Mohd KS, Zin T. Antiulcer activity of musa paradisiaca (banana) tepal and skin extracts in ulcer induced albino mice. Malaysian J Anal Sci 2016;20(5):1203–16.

16. de Jesus NZT, de Souza Falcão H, Gomes IF, de Almeida Leite TJ, de Morais Lima GR, Barbosa-Filho JM, et al. Tannins, peptic ulcers and related mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13(3):3203–28.

17. Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, Pallio G, Mannino F, Arcoraci V, et al. Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017;2017:8416763. doi: 10.1155/2017/8416763.

18. Ulfa A, Ekastuti DR, Wresdiyati T. [The Potency of Kepok Banana peel Extract (Musa paradisiaca forma typica) and Uli (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) in increasing superoxide dismutase activity and reducing malondialdehyde levels in the liver of hypercholesterolemic rats mode]. Acta Vet Indones 2020;8(1):40–6. Indonesian.

19. Yulis PAR, Sari Y. [Antioxidant activity of muli banana peel (Musa acuminata linn) and kepok banana peel (Musa paradisiaca formatypica)]. Al-Kimia 2020 Dec;8(2):189–200. Indonesian.

20. Mekonnen AN, Asrade Atnafie S, Wahab Atta MA. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions of the root of Croton macrostachyus Hocsht: Ex Del. (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 Apr 9;2020:2809270. doi: 10.1155/2020/2809270.

Original article