Attitudes of the Elderly towards Interprofessional Cooperation and Collaborative Pharmacy Practices: Questionnaire development
Population aging is progressing at the highest rate historically, leading to an increased morbidity. Therefore, higher levels of collaborative pharmaceutical practice (CPP) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are expected to provide the necessary improvement to the healthcare system performance. For a strong body of literature to be built in the area of CPP and IPC, methodologically sound research studies must be completed, using questionnaires with well-developed psychometric properties. Therefore, the objective was to develop a questionnaire aimed at researching the attitudes of the elderly (65+) towards IPC and CPP. A structured questionnaire was developed using the Delphi method by a team of experts (n=8) within four rounds of meetings. Reliability, question correlation and factor analysis were used for questionnaire validation. Questionnaire validation (n=40) determined the Cronbach’s Alpha to be at the high value of 0.774, and reliability analysis of questionnaire’s scales on the total sample (n=185) in the five Geriatric Centers confirmed a relatively high value of 0.736. Interclass correlation coefficient values were highly significant (ICC=0.749; p<0.01), which confirmed questionnaire compactness regarding CPP. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted 2 significant factors explaining 53% of the entire model variability. Both questionnaire validation (n=40) and total sample analysis (n=185) confirmed the appropriateness of the developed questionnaire.
Eurostat. Population structure and ageing. Luxembourg: Eurostat. 2017. [Cited 2018 July 27]. Available from:
United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Ageing 2015. New York: United Nations. 2015. [Cited 2017 Apr 10] Available from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WPA2015_Report.pdf.
World Health Organization. Health aging topic. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2017. [Cited 2017 Sep 04]. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/ageing/en/.
World Health Organization. Global strategy and action plan on aging and health (2016-2020): A Framework for Coordinated Global Action by the World Health Organization, Member States and Partners across the Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2016. [Cited 2018 Nov 29]. Available from: http://www.who.int/ageing/GSAP-Summary-EN.pdf?ua=1.
Ferrucci L, Giallauria F, Guralnik JM. Epidemiology of Aging. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008;46:643–652.
Ilić V, Tasić L, Marinković V. Research on the attitudes of the elderly towards interprofessional cooperation and collaborative pharmacy practices: Cross-sectional study in Serbia. Indian J Pharm Educ. 2021;55(1):276-87.
Thannhauser J, Russell-Mayhew S, Scott C. Measures of interprofessional education and collaboration. J Interprof Care. 2010;24:336–349.
Lindqvist S, Duncan A, Shepstone L, Watts F, Pearce S. Development of the “Attitudes to Health Professionals Questionnaire” (AHPQ): A measure to assess interprofessional attitudes. J Interprof Care. 2005;19:269–279.
Körner M. Interprofessional teamwork in medical rehabilitation: a comparison of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary team approach. Clin Rehabil. 2010;24:745–755.
Parsell G, Bligh J. The development of a questionnaire to assess the readiness of health care students for interprofessional learning (RIPLS). Med Educ. 1999;33:95–100.
Ponzer S, Hylin U, Kusoffsky A, Lauffs M, Lonka K, Mattiasson AC, et al. Interprofessional training in the context of clinical practice: goals and students' perceptions on clinical education wards. Med Educ. 2004;38:727-736.
Rattray J, Jones MC. Essential elements of questionnaire design and development. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16:234–243.
Nuño Solinís R, Berraondo Zabalegui I, Sauto Arce R, San Martín Rodríguez L, Toro Polanco N. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels. Int J Integr Care. 2013;13: e015.
Jokovic A, Locker D, Stephens M, Kenny D, Tompson B, Guyatt G. Validity and Reliability of a Questionnaire for Measuring Child Oral-health-related Quality of Life. J. Dent. Res. 2002;81:459–463.
Juniper EF, Buist AS, Cox FM, Ferrie PJ, King DR.. Validation of a Standardized Version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Chest. 1999;115:1265–1270.
Black N, Varaganum M, Hutchings A. Relationship between patient reported experience (PREMs) and patient reported outcomes (PROMs) in elective surgery. BMJ Qual Saf. 2014;23:534–542.
Whelan P, Andrews T, Patel S, Lewis A. Taking the Cinderella speciality to the PROM: developing a patient related outcome measure for an older adult mental health service. Qual Ageing Older Adults. 2010;11:51–55.
Singer SJ, Burgers J, Friedberg M, Rosenthal MB, Leape L, Schneider E. Defining and Measuring Integrated Patient Care: Promoting the Next Frontier in Health Care Delivery. Med Care Res Rev. 2010;68:112–127.
Ilic V, Marinkovic V, Tasic L. Conceptual model of collaborative pharmaceutical practice in healthcare and social care for the elderly. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2018;75:1020-1029.
Diamond IR, Grant RC, Feldman BM, Pencharz PB, Ling SC, Moore AM, et al. Defining consensus: a systematic review recommends methodologic criteria for reporting of Delphi studies. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2014 Apr 1;67(4):401-9.
Tsang S, Royse CF, Terkawi AS. Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine. Saudi journal of anaesthesia. 2017 May;11(Suppl 1):S80.
Perneger TV, Courvoisier DS, Hudelson PM, Gayet-Ageron A. Sample size for pre-tests of questionnaires. Quality of Life Research. 2015 Jan;24(1):147-51.
Pejin SL, Bajec J. ESPN Thematic Report on Challenges in long-term care-Serbia. Brussels: European Commission. 2018. [cited 2020 May 2]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?pager.offset=20&catId=792&langId=en&moreDocuments=yes.
Sauer M, Perišić N. Local Networks in the Provision of Long-term Care Services in Serbia – a View from the South-East of Europe. Sozialer Fortschritt. 2014;63(8):209-15.
Mccallin A. Interdisciplinary practice - a matter of teamwork: an integrated literature review. J Clin Nurs. 2001;10:419–428.
San Martín-Rodríguez L, Beaulieu M-D, D’Amour D, et al. The determinants of successful collaboration: A review of theoretical and empirical studies. J Interprof Care. 2005;19:132–147.