Behavior of platinum in the system of the matte-slag in the processing of copper-nickel ores
Copper-nickel sulfide ores are one of the main sources of platinum. The processes for extracting precious metal from such ores involves melting of a concentrate in electric ore smelting furnaces, where the melt is divided into matte and slag. Platinum is generally concentrated in matte; however, some its part remains in the slag, thus leading to metal losses. In order to reduce platinum losses, the forms of platinum in these phases should be studied. It was found that during the heating and melting of this ore in reducing atmospheres, iron, nickel, and copper are reduced. The mineral composition of matte has been studied. Platinum in matte is present in the form of intermetallides with Fe and Ni. The PtFe intermetallide is a dispersed needle formation with a length of 20 to 500 µm and a thickness of up to 10 µm. The size effect is revealed: the content of impurities in the PtFe intermetallide increases with decreasing the thickness of needle formations. The increase in the content of impurities in dispersed needle formations of platinum can be explained by an increase in the thermodynamic activity of the dispersed substance and a corresponding increase in solubility. It was found that matte drops, together with the associated Pt, Fe, and Ni intermetallide particles of no more than 5-7 µm in size, were carried into the slag by gas bubbles using flotation. The conditions for the rise of a matte drop, together with a bubble in the slag, consist in the fact that the adhesive force of the drop with the bubble and the buoyancy force acting on the bubble must be greater than the gravity of the drop.
 B. O'Driscoll, J.M. Gonzalez-Jimenez, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 81 (1) B (2016), 489-578. https://doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2016.81.09.
 Г.В. Петров, А.Я. Бодуэн, И.И. Мардарь, Б.С. Иванов, А.С. Богинская, Успехи современного естествознания, 3 (2013), 145-148 (G.V. Petrov, A.Ya. Baudouin, I.I. Mardar, B.S. Ivanov, A.S. Boginskaya, Advances in modern natural sciences, 3 (2013), 145-148 (in Russian).
 I. Bellemans, E. De Wilde, N. Moelans, K. Verbeken, Adv Colloid Interface Sci., 255 (2018), 47-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2017.08.001.
 В.А. Макаров, В.Г. Михеев, П.Н. Самородский, Горный журнал, 3 (2016) 50-55 (V.A. Makarov, V.G. Mikheev, P.N. Samorodsky, Mountain Journal, 3 (2016) 50-55 (in Russian). https://doi.org/10.17580/gzh.2016.03.11.
 В.Н. Шамов, А.И. Юрьев, С.И. Матвеева, Н.А. Шабунина, Л.И. Алексеева, В.Д. Чегодаев, Цветные металлы, 9 (2006), 49-52 (V.N. Shamov, A.I. Yuriev, S.I. Matveeva, N.A. Shabunina, L.I. Alekseeva, V.D. Chegodaev, Non-ferrous metals, 9 (2006), 49-52 (in Russian).
 K. Avarmaa, H. Johto, P. Taskinen, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 47 (1) B (2016), p 244–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-015-0498-4.
 K. Avarmaa, H. O'Brien, H. Johto, P. Taskinen, Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy 1 (3) B (2015), 216-228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40831-015-0020-x.
 L.Sh. Tsemekhman, L.B. Tsymbulov, R.A. Pakhomov, V.A. Popov, Tsvetnye Metally, 11 (2016), p. 50-56. https://doi.org/10.17580/tsm.2016.11.05.
 P. Piskunen, K. Avarmaa, H. O'Brien, L. Klemettinen, H. Johto, P. Taskinen, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 49 (1) B (2018), 98–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-017-1115-5.
 J. E. Mungall, J.M. Brenan, B. Godel, S.J. Barnes, F. Gaillard, Nature Geoscience, 8 (3), B (2015), 216-219. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2373.
 Я.И. Гегузин, Пузыри, Наука, Москва, 1985, с. 176 (Y.E. Geguzin, Bubbles, Nauka, Moscow, 1985, p. 176 (in Russian).
 L.J. Cabri, C.E. Feather, Can. Mineral., 13 (1975), 117–126. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Louis_Cabri/publication/258210775_Platinum-iron_alloys_A_nomenclature_based_on_a_study_of_natural_and_synthetic_alloys/links/0c96052740087ceee6000000/Platinum-iron-alloys-A-nomenclature-based-on-a-study-of-natural-and-synthetic-alloys.pdf
 N.A. Vatolin, A.M. Amdur, V.V. Pavlov, S.A. Fedorov, A.N. Matushkina, Doklady Physical Chemistry, 470 (2), B (2016), 162-164. https://doi.org/10.1134/ S0012501616100067.
 HSC Chemistry for Windows. Chemical Reaction and Equilibrium Software withis extensive Thermochemical Database / Outotec Reseach Oy Information Servise, Finland. URL: www.outotec.com/hsc.
 В.Ф. Борбат, Металлургия платиновых металлов, Металлургия, Москва, 1987, с. 432 (V.F. Borbat, Metallurgy of platinum metals, Metallurgy, Moscow, 1987, p. 432 (in Russian).
 А.В. Ванюков, В.Я. Зайцев, Шлаки и штейны цветной металлургии, Металлургия, Москва, 1969, с. 408 (A.V. Vanyukov, V.Ya. Zaitsev, Slags and mattes of non-ferrous metallurgy, Metallurgy, Moscow, 1969, p. 408 (in Russian).
 Н.Г. Кайтмазова, Производство металлов за Полярным кругом, Антей лимитед, Норильск, 2007, c. 296 (N.G. Kaitmazova, Metal Production in the Arctic Circle, Antei Limited, Norilsk, 2007, p. 296(in Russian).
Authors retain copyright of the published papers and grant to the publisher the non-exclusive right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media.The Author(s) warrant that their manuscript is their original work that has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; and that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. The Author(s) affirm that the article contains no unfounded or unlawful statements and does not violate the rights of others. The author(s) also affirm that they hold no conflict of interest that may affect the integrity of the Manuscript and the validity of the findings presented in it. The Corresponding author, as the signing author, warrants that he/she has full power to make this grant on behalf of the Author(s). Any software contained in the Supplemental Materials is free from viruses, contaminants or worms.
The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA).
Authors are permitted to deposit publisher's version (PDF) of their work in an institutional repository, subject-based repository, author's personal website (including social networking sites, such as ResearchGate, Academia.edu, etc.), and/or departmental website at any time after publication.
Upon receiving the proofs, the Author(s) agree to promptly check the proofs carefully, correct any typographical errors, and authorize the publication of the corrected proofs.
The Corresponding author agrees to inform his/her co-authors, of any of the above terms.