Hot deformation behavior of micro-alloyed steel using processing maps developed with different constitutive equations

  • Suman Thakur B.E
  • Alok Kumar Das PhD
  • Bimal Kumar jha PhD
Keywords: Deformation, Processing map, Microalloyed, Arrhenius Equation


The hot workability of microalloyed steel was studied in the deformation temperature range of 850-1200oC and strain rate of 0.001-100s-1. The constitutive relation of flow stress with temperature, strain rate and strain was established to construct processing maps of the microalloyed steel. The processing maps were constructed using conventional power law, integral method and Arrhenius equations. The developed processing maps were used to predict the optimal hot deformation conditions and validated with metallurgical examinations. The safe regime for hot working of the experimental steel was found to be in the intermediate temperature-strain rate range (1000-1150oC- 0.001-10 s-1), where the deformation process is dominated by dynamic recrystallization and dynamic recovery of the austenitic phase. The processing map constructed using Arrhenius equations increases continuously with increase in deformation temperature and decrease in strain rate and does not reveal relevant information of hot workability with respect to deformation temperature and strain rate.


  • K P Rao,Y V R K Prasad, K Suresh, “Hot working behavior and processing map of a γ-TiAl alloy synthesized by powder metallurgy”, J. Materials & Design, 32(10), 2011, 4874-4881.

  • M S Popkiadeh, A Rezaeian, G Dini, M R Toroghinejad, Hot deformation behavior of high Mn TWIP steel using Processing Map, ISIJ International, Vol. 55(2015), No.3, 691-696

  • H Q Huang, H S Di, N yan, J C Zhang, Y G Deng, R D K Mishra, J P li, Hot deformation behavior and Processing maps of High Al-low Si Transformed Induced Plasticity Steel: Microstructural Evolution and Flow Stress Behaviour, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), 018, 31, 503-514

  • Ning Li,, Processing maps for hot working of HSLA pipeline steel, Mater. Res. Express 6 (2019) 1265g2

  • Y V R KPrasad, “Processing maps: a status report”. J Mater Process Technol, 12(6), 2003, 638-645.

  • Y Prasad, T Seshacharyulu, “Modeling of hot deformation for microstructural control”, J. Materials Reviews, 43(6), 1998, 243-258.

  • S V S Narayana Murty, B Nageswara Rao, B P Kashyap, Development and validation of a processing map for zirconium alloys, Modelling and Simulation in Material Science and EngineeringVol.10, 2002, 503–520

  • Guo-zhengQuan, “The improved Arrhenius model with variable parameters of flow behaviour characterizing for the as-cast AZ80 magnesium alloy”, J. Materials Research, 2013, 16(4), 785-971.

  • Ming Hu, A Novel Computational Method of Processing Map for Ti-6Al-4V Alloy and Corresponding Microstructure Study, Materials 2018, 11, 1599; doi:10.3390/ma11091599

  • HaitaoVhao,, “Hot deformation behaviour of 40CrNi steel and evaluation of different processing map construction methods”, J. Materials, Research & Technology., 2020, https ://

  • G. Hong, K.B. Kang, C.G. Park, Strain-induced precipitation of NbC in Nb and NbTimicroalloyed HSLA steels, Scr. Mater. 46 (2) (2002) 163–168.

  • Luo, M.Q. Li, Y.G. Liu, H.M. Sun, The deformation behavior in isothermal compression of 300M ultrahigh-strength steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 534 (2012) 314–322.

  • R L Goetz, S L Semiatin, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 2001, 10(6), 710

  • Jingwei Zhao, Zhengyi Jiang, Thermo-mechanical processing of advanced high strength steels, Progress in Materials Science, Volume 94, May 2018, Pages 174-242

  • Wei Wang, Jun Zhao, RuiXueZhai, Rui Ma, Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Model and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of 20Cr2Ni4A Alloy Carburizing Steel, steel research int. 87 (2016) No. 9999

  • Suman Kant Thakur,, Materials Today: Proceedings 28 (2020) 1973–1979

  • S V S Narayana Murthy, B N rao, B P Kashyap, Development and validation of a processing map for AFNOR 7020 aluminium alloy, materials Science and Technology, Vol.20, 2004, 772-782

How to Cite
Thakur, S., Das, A. K., & jha, B. K. (2022). Hot deformation behavior of micro-alloyed steel using processing maps developed with different constitutive equations . Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy, 58(2), 321-333. Retrieved from
Original Scientific Paper