Morphological, cultural and ecological characterization of Monilinia spp., pathogens of stone fruit in Serbia
Different brown rot pathogens cause similar symptoms on fruit, which makes it difficult to differentiate them based only on developed symptoms. Therefore, several methods have been described for accurate identification of Monilinia species. In spite of the fact that those methods can be reliable, there are several limitations for their use, and the aim of this study was to find out if there are any specific characteristics that could be used as additional features for precise identification and in-depth characterization of Monilinia species. The results showed that morphological characteristics on PDA, and mycelium growth rate on PDA medium can be useful characters for differentiation of Monilinia species since M. fructicola was found to grow faster than the other two test species, while M. fructigena grew the slowest. MALT was the optimal medium for M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates, while PDA medium was optimal for M. fructicola. Regarding an extremely acidic medium (pH 2), only M. laxa and M. fructicola isolates were able to grow in it, while M. fructigena isolate was the only that grew in a moderately alkaline medium (pH 9). Also, the results revealed that the optimal temperature for M. fructigena and M. fructicola growth was 23ºC, while 28ºC was optimal for M. laxa isolate. On the other hand, some differences in the sensitivity of Monilinia isolates were revealed at extreme temperatures: M. fructigena isolate was the most sensitive (grew from 4°C to up to 31°C), while M. fructicola isolate was the most resistant (grew at 2°C and 34°C). The obtained results inferred that there are no specific features that can be used for reliable and precise identification of Monilinia species, but we observed some differences regarding the effects of extreme temperatures and pH values of culture medium on different species. Further research, involving more isolates, is needed for a final conclusion.
Adaskaveg, J.E., Schnabel, G., & Forster, H. (2008). Diseases of peach caused by fungi and fungal-like organisms: biology, epidemiology and management. In: D.R. Layne, D. Bassi,eds. The peach - botany, production and uses (pp 352-406). Wallingford, UK: CABI.
Batra, L.R. (1979). First authenticated North American record of Monilinia fructigena, with notes on related species. Mycotaxon, 8(2), 476-484.
Batra, L.R. (1991). World species of Monilinia (Fungi). Their ecology, biosystematics and control. Berlin, Germany:. J. Cramer.
Byrde, R.J.W., & Willetts, H J. (1977). The brown rot fungi of fruit: Their biology and control. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
Cote, M.J., Tardif, M.C., & Meldrum, A.J. (2004). Identification of Monilinia fructigena, M. fructicola, M. laxa, and Monilia polystroma on inoculated and naturally infected fruit using multiplex PCR. Plant Disease, 88,1219-1225.
De Cal, A., & Melgarejo, P. (1999). Effects of long-wave UV light on Monilinia growth and identification of species. Plant Disease, 83, 62-65.
Dhingra, O.D., & Sinclair, J.B. (1995). Basic Plant Pathology Methods (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (2011). Pest risk assessment of Monilinia fructicola for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options. EFSA Journal, 9(4), 2119, 1-155.
Fischer, J.M.M., Savi, D.C., Aluizio, R., May De Mio, L.L., & Glienke, C. (2017). Characterization of Monilinia species associated with brown rot in stone fruit in Brazil. Plant Pathology, 66(3), 423-436.
Holb, I.J., & Chauhan, S.V.S. (2004). Effect of carbohydrate and nitrogen sources on the growth rates of Monilia fructigena and M. polystroma isolates. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 35, 128-131.
Hrustić, J., Delibašić, G., Stanković, I., Grahovac, M., Krstić, B., Bulajić, A., & Tanović, B. (2015). Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Stone Fruit in Serbia. Plant Disease, 99(5), 709-717.
Hrustić, J., Delibašić, G., Grahovac, M., Mihajlović, M., & Tanović, B. (2018). Fungicide sensitivity, growth rate, aggressiveness and frost hardiness of Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa isolates. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 151(2), 389-400.
Hrustić, J., Grahovac, M., Mihajlović, M., Delibašić, G., Ivanović, M., Nikolić, M., & Tanović, B. (2012). Molecular detection of Monilinia fructigena as causal agent of brown rot on quince. Pesticides and Phytomedicine, 27(1), 15-24. Doi: 10.2298/PIF1201015H
Hughes, K.J.D., Fulton, C.E., McReynolds, D., & Lane, C.R. (2000). Development of new PCR primers for identification of Monilinia species. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 30(3-4), 507-511.
Hu, M.J., Cox, D.C., Schnabel, G., & Luo, C.X. (2011). Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China. PLoS One, 6(9), e24990.
Ioos, R., & Frey, P. (2000). Genomic variation within Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, and application to species identification by PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106, 373-378.
Lane, C. R. (2002). A synoptic key for differentiation of Monilinia fructicola, M. fructigena and M. laxa, based on examination of cultural characters. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 32,489-493.
Lichtemberg, P.S.F., Silva, F.A., Zeviani, W.M., & May De Mio, L.L. (2014). Comparison of macromorphological and physiological methods for Monilinia species identification in Parana State, Brazil. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 36(1), 38-47.
Obi, V.I., Barriuso, J.J., & Gogorcena, Y. (2018). Effects of pH and titratable acidity on the growth and development of Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) in vitro and in vivo. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 151, 781-790.
Papavasileiou, A., Testempasis, S., Michailides, T.J., & Karaoglanidis, G.S. (2015). Frequency of brown rot fungi on blossoms and fruit in stone fruit orchards in Greece. Plant Pathology, 64(2), 416-424.
Pereira, W.V., Padilha, A.C.N., Kaiser, J.A.O. Nesi, C.N., Fischer, J.M.M., & May-De-Mio, L.L. (2019). Monilinia spp. from imported stone fruits may represent a risk to Brazilian fruit production. Tropical Plant Pathology, 44(2), 120-131.
Poniatowska, A., Michalecka, M., & Bielenin, A. (2013). Characteristic of Monilinia spp. fungi causing brown rot of pome and stone fruits in Poland. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 135(4), 855-865.
Sokal, R.R., & Rohlf, F.J. (1995). Biometry: The principles and practice of statistics in biological research (3rd ed.). New York, USA: W.H. Freeman and Company.
van Leeuwen, G.C.M., & van Kesteren, H.A. (1998). Delineation of the three brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.) on the basis of quantitative characteristics. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76(12), 2042-2050.
Vasić, M., Vico, I., Jurick II, W.M., & Duduk, N. (2018). Distribution and Characterization of Monilinia spp. Causing Apple Fruit Decay in Serbia. Plant Disease, 102(2),359-369.
Villarino, M., Melgarejo, P., De Cal, A. (2016). Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp survival peaches. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 224, 22-27.
Authors retain copyright of the published papers and grant to the publisher the non-exclusive right to publish the article, to be cited as its original publisher in case of reuse, and to distribute it in all forms and media.
The published articles will be distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA). It is allowed to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and remix, transform, and build upon it for any purpose, even commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given to the original author(s), a link to the license is provided, it is indicated if changes were made and the new work is distributed under the same license as the original.
Users are required to provide full bibliographic description of the original publication (authors, article title, journal title, volume, issue, pages), as well as its DOI code. In electronic publishing, users are also required to link the content with both the original article published in Pesticidi i fitomedicina (Pesticides and Phytomedicine) and the licence used.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.