Measuring corporate social performance
Business and researchers have paid increasingly more attention to corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in term of their sustainable reports. These disclosures supply information for not only managers in strategic decision-making but also other stakeholders in measuring and evaluating corporate social performance (CSP). Although the development of literature on CSR disclosure, the CSR’s measurement is not yet unified because of different perspective and methodology. The question is how to measure CSP through analyzing CSR disclosure. This paper aims to present theoretical background of CSR and CSR disclosure. Based on the conceptual framework, the research exposes the drivers of CSR reporting as well as debates prior research on CSR disclosure and its consequences. Furthermore, a measurement method of CSP proposed built on CSR disclosure index in this paper. It devotes to enrich the corporate social responsibility reporting literature, offers implications for practice as well as outlines promising avenues for future research, especially in the differences of CSR disclosure among different countries.
Adams, C. A., Hill, W. Y., & Roberts, C. B. (1998). Corporate social reporting practices in western Europe: Legitimating corporate behaviour? British Accounting Review, 30(1), 1–21.
Berman, S. L., Wicks, A. C., Kotha, S., & Jones, T. M. (1999). Does Stakeholder Orientation Matter? The Relationship Between Stakeholder Management Models and Firm Financial Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 42(5), 488–506.
Boesso, G., & Kumar, K. (2007). Drivers of corporate voluntary disclosure. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal (Vol. 20).
Branco, M. C., & Rodrigues, L. L. (2008). Factors influencing social responsibility disclosure by Portuguese companies. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(4), 685–701.
Buhr, N. (1998). Environmental performance, legislation and annual report disclosure: the case of acid rain and Falconbridge. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal (Vol. 11).
Carroll, A. B. (1979). Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.
Choi, J. S., Kwak, Y. M., & Choe, C. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance: Evidence from Korea. Australian Journal of Management, 35(3), 291–311.
Clarkson, P. M., Li, Y., Richardson, G. D., & Vasvari, F. P. (2008). Revisiting the relation between environmental performance and environmental disclosure: An empirical analysis. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 33(4–5), 303–327.
Cormier, D., & Magnan, M. (2003). Environmental reporting management: A continenal European perspective. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 22(1), 43–62.
Cormier, D., Magnan, M., & Velthoven, B. Van. (2005). Environmental Disclosure Quality In Large German Companies : Economic Incentives , Public Pressures or Institutional Conditions ? Denis Cormier École des sciences de la gestion Université du Québec à Montréal Michel Magnan The Lawrence Bloomberg Chair in. European Accounting Review, 14(1), 3–39.
Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How Corporate Social Responsibility is Defined: an Analysis of 37 Definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 13(November 2006), 1–13.
Deegan, C. (2002). Introduction the legitimising effect of social and environmental disclosures - a theoretical foundation. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 15(3), 282–311.
Deegan, C., & Rankin, M. (1996). Do Australian companies report environmental news objectively? Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 9(2), 50–67.
Deegan, C., Rankin, M., & Tobin, J. (2002). An examination of the corporate social and environmental disclosures of BHP from 1983‐1997. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 15(3), 312–343.
Dowling, J., & Pfeffer, J. (1975). Organizational Legitimacy : Social Values and Organizational Behavior between the Organizations seek to establish congruence. The Pacific Sociological Review, 18(1), 122–136.
Elkington, J. (1998). Partnerships from Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom line of 21 st Century Business. Environmental Quality Management, 8(1), 37–51.
Esa, E., & Anum Mohd Ghazali, N. (2012). Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Malaysian government‐linked companies. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 12(3), 292–305.
Frank, T., & Armandi, B. R. (1981). A need - hierarchy framework for asessing Corporate Social Responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 21–28.
Freeman. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pittman.
Friedman, M. (1970). A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 78(6), 193–238.
Gallardo-Vázquez, D., & Sanchez-Hernandez, M. I. (2014). Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility for competitive success at a regional level. Journal of Cleaner Production, 72, 14–22.
Gray, R., Javad, M., Power, D. M., & Sinclair, C. D. (2001). Social and environmental disclosure and corporate characteristics: A research note and extension. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting, 28(3–4), 327–356.
Gray, R., Kouhy, R., & Lavers, S. (1995). Corporate social and environmental reporting: a review of the literature and a longitudinal study of UK disclosure. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 8(2), 47–77.
Guthrie, J., & Parker, L. D. (1989). Corporate Social Reporting: A Rebuttal of Legitimacy Theory. Accounting and Business Research, 19(76), 343–352.
Hackston, D., & Milne, M. J. (1996). and environmental disclosures in New Zealand companies. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 9(1), 77–108.
Haniffa, R. M., & Cooke, T. E. (2005). The impact of culture and governance on corporate social reporting. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 24(5), 391–430.
Harte, G., & Owen, D. (1991). Environmental Disclosures: A note on reporting practices in Mainland Europe. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 4(3), 51–61.
Hoang, T. C., Abeysekera, I., & Ma, S. (2016). Board Diversity and Corporate Social Disclosure: Evidence from Vietnam. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–20.
Jo, H., & Harjoto, M. A. (2012). The Causal Effect of Corporate Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(1), 53–72.
Khan, A., Muttakin, M. B., & Siddiqui, J. (2013). Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosures: Evidence from an Emerging Economy. Journal of Business Ethics, 114(2), 207–223.
Lu, Y., & Abeysekera, I. (2014). Stakeholders’ power, corporate characteristics, and social and environmental disclosure: Evidence from China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64, 426–436.
Mathews, M. R. (1997). Twenty-five years of social and environmental accounting research: Is there a silver jubilee to celebrate? Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 10(4), 481–531.
Milne, M. J., & Adler, R. W. (1999). Exploring the reliability of social and environmental disclosures content analysis. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 12(2), 237–256.
Neu, D., Warsame, H., & Pedwell, K. (1998). Managing Public Impressions: Environmental Disclosures in Annual Reports. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 23(3), 265–282.
Patten, D. M. (1991). Exposure, legitimacy, and social disclosure. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 10(4), 297–308.
Rahman Belal, A., & Momin, M. (2009). Corporate social reporting (CSR) in emerging economies: A review and future direction. Research in Accounting in Emerging Economies (Vol. 9). Elsevier.
Reverte, C. (2009). Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure ratings by Spanish listed firms. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(2), 351–366.
Robert, C. B. (1991). The Influence of External Pressure Groups on Corporate Social Disclosure Some Empirical Evidence. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 4(3), 62–71.
Roberts, R. W. (1992). Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: an application of stakeholder theory. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 17(6), 595–612.
Said, R., Hj Zainuddin, Y., & Haron, H. (2009). The relationship between corporate social responsibility disclosure and corporate governance characteristics in Malaysian public listed companies. Social Responsibility Journal, 5(2), 212–226.
Saleh, M., Zulkifli, N., & Muhamad, R. (2011). Looking for evidence of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and corporate financial performance in an emerging market. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 3(2), 165–190.
Tagesson, T., Blank, V., Broberg, P., & Collin, S.-O. (2009). What explains the extent and content of social disclosures on corporate websites? Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 364(March), 352–364.
Tilt, C. A. (1994). The Influence of External Pressure Groups on Corporate Social Disclosure: Some Empirical Evidence. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 7(4), 47–72.
Toms, J. S. (2002). Firm resources, quality signals and the determinants of corporate environmental reputation: Some UK evidence. British Accounting Review, 34(3), 257–282.
Tsang, E. W. K. (1998). A longitudinal study of corporate social reporting in Singapore: The case of the banking, food and beverages and hotel industries. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 11(5), 624–635.
Unerman, J. (2000). Methodological Issues Reflections on quantification in corporate social reporting content analysis. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 13(5), 667–680.
The Author wishes to submit the Work to SJM for publication. To enable SJM to publish the Work and to give effect to the parties’ intention set forth herein, they have agreed to cede the first right to publication and republication in the SJM Journal.
The Author hereby cedes to SJM, who accepts the cession, to the copyright in and to the paper.
The purpose of the cession is to enable SJM to publish the Work, as first publisher world-wide, and for republication in the SJM Journal, and to grant the right to others to publish the Work world-wide, for so long as such copyright subsists;
SJM shall be entitled to edit the work before publication, as it deems fit, subject to the Authors approval
The Author warrants to SJM that:
- the Author is the owner of the copyright in the Work, whether as author or as reassigned from the Author’s employee and that the Author is entitled to cede the copyright to SJM;
- the paper (or any of its part) is not submitted or accepted for publication in any other Journal;
- the Work is an original work created by the Author;
- the Author has not transferred, ceded, or assigned the copyright, or any part thereof, to any third party; or granted any third party a licence or other right to the copyright, which may affect or detract from the rights granted to SJM in terms of this agreement.
The Author hereby indemnifies the SJM as a body and its individual members, to the fullest extent permitted in law, against all or any claims which may arise consequent to the warranties set forth.
No monetary consideration shall be payable by SJM to the Author for the cession, but SJM shall clearly identify the Author as having produced the Work and ensure that due recognition is given to the Author in any publication of the Work.
Should SJM, in its sole discretion, elect not to publish the Work within 1 year after the date of this agreement, the cession shall lapse and be of no further effect. In such event the copyright shall revert to the Author and SJM shall not publish the Work, or any part thereof, without the Author’s prior written consent.