An integrated framework for customer loyalty in the hotel sector

  • Elvira Tabaku European University of Tirana
  • Drita Kruja European University of Tirana


This study explores the impact of the antecedents (i.e., service quality, image, trust, perceived value and customer satisfaction) on customer loyalty in the hotel sector. A total of 361 valid responses from a survey conducted in Albania were received. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings suggest that service quality, image, trust, perceived value and customer satisfaction are reliable predictors of customer loyalty in the hotel sector.The results of this study can help and guide practitioners in understanding significant elements of their offer toward loyalty creation and reinforcement.


Author Biography

Drita Kruja, European University of Tirana

Prof. Dr. Drita Kruja finished her graduate and postgraduate studies at the Faculty of Economics in Tirana, Albania. She has carried out scientific research at the University of Bologna and Firenze , Italy; University of Social Sciences of Roskilde,Denmark; University of Applied Sciences in Bocholt and Eberswalde, Germany; Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain; Economics University, Prague, Czech Republic; Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary; University of Maribor, Slovenia; Obuda University, Hungary; Sandhills Community College, USA, etc.

As a team leader and member, Prof. Dr. Kruja has worked on a number of research projects at local, national and international levels. She has authored or co-authored three university books; two book chapters published by Routledge, and has published the articles and conference papers. She is also a reviewer of many international high-impact reviews.


Agustin, C., & Singh, J. (2005). Curvilinear effects of customer loyalty determinants in relational exchanges. Journal of Marketing Research, 42 (1), 96-108.

Akbaba, A. (2006). Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: A study in a business hotel in Turkey. Hospitality Management, 25 (2), 170-192.

Andreassen, T.W., & Lindestad, B. (1998). Customer loyalty and complex services: The impact of corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9 (1), 7- 23.

Aydin, S., & Özer, G. (2005). The analysis of antecedents of customer loyalty in the Turkish mobile telecommunication market. European Journal of Marketing, 39 (7/8), 910 – 925.

Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, evaluation and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40 (1), 8-34.

Biscaia, A.R., Rosa, M.J., Moura e Sá, P., & Sarrico, C.S. (2017). Assessing customer satisfaction and loyalty in the retail sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 34 (9), 1508-1529.

Bowen, J.T., & Shoemaker, S. (1998). The antecedents and consequences of customer loyalty. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 39 (1), 12-25.

Brown, R.M., & Mazzarol, T.W. (2009). The importance of institutional image to student satisfaction and loyalty within higher education. Higher Education, 58 (1), 81–95.

Chang, C., & Dibb, S. (2012). Reviewing and conceptualizing customer-perceived value. The Marketing Review, 12 (3), 253-274.

Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M.B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65 (2), 81-93.

Chen, C.F. (2008). Investigating structural relationships between service quality, perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions for air passengers: Evidence from Taiwan. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 42 (4), 709–717.

Chen, C.F., & Chen, F.S. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31 (1), 29–35.

Chen, C.F., & Cheng, L. (2012). A study on mobile phone service loyalty in Taiwan. Total quality management and business excellence, 23 (7/8), 807-819.

Chen, C.F., & Tsai, D.V. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28 (4), 1115–1122.

Clemes, M.D., Gan, C., & Ren, M. (2011). Synthesizing the effects of service quality, value, and customer satisfaction on behavioral intentions in the motel industry: an empirical analysis. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 35 (4), 530-568.

Croteau, A.M., & Li, P. (2003). Critical success factors of CRM technological initiatives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 20 (1), 21-34.

Del Bosque, I.R. & Martín, H.S. (2008). Tourist satisfaction a cognitive-affective model. Annals of Tourism Research, 35 (2), 551–573.

Delgado-Ballester, E., & Munuera-Alleman, J.L. (2005). Does brand trust matter to brand equity? Journal of Product and Brand Management, 14 (3), 187-196.

Dick, A.S. & Basu, D. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (2), 99-113.

Flint, D.J., Blocker, C., & Boutin Jr. P. (2011). Customer value anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical examination. Industrial Marketing Management, 40 (2), 219–230.

Gallarza, M.G., & Saura, I.G. (2006). Value dimensions, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty: an investigation of university students’ travel behavior. Tourism Management, 27 (3), 437–452.

Gallarza, M.G., Saura, I.G., & Garcia, H.C. (2002). Destination image: toward a conceptual framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 29 (1), 56-78.

Gallarza, M.G., Saura, I.G., & Moreno, F.M. (2013). The quality-value-satisfaction-loyalty chain: relationships and impacts. Tourism Review, 68 (1), 3-20.

Giraldi, A., & Cesareo, L. (2014). Destination image differences between first-time and return visitors: An exploratory study on the city of Rome. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 14 (4), 197-205.

Gounaris, S. (2005). Trust and commitment influences on customer retention: insights from business-to-business services. Journal of Business Research, 58 (2), 126–140.

Gronroos, G. (2011). A service perspective on business relationships: The value creation, interaction and marketing interface. Industrial Marketing Management, 40 (2), 240–247.

Haemoon, O., & Kawon, K. (2017). Customer satisfaction, service quality, and customer value; years 2000-2015. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29 (1), 2-29.

Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W.C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Harris, L.C., & Goode, M.H. (2004). The four levels of loyalty and the pivotal role of trust: a study of online service dynamics. Journal of Retailing, 80 (2), 139–158.

Homburg, C., Koschate, N., & Hoyer, W.D. (2006). The role of cognition and affect in the formation of customer satisfaction: A dynamic perspective. Journal of Marketing, 70 (3), 21-31.

Hong, I.B., & Cho, H. (2011). The impact of consumer trust on attitudinal loyalty and purchase intentions in B2C e-marketplaces: Intermediary trust vs. seller trust. International Journal of Information Management, 31 (5), 469–479.

Hu, H-H., Kandampully, J., & Juwaheer, T.D. (2009). Relationships and impacts of service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction and image: an empirical study. The Service Industries Journal, 29 (2), 111–125.

Jones, T., & Taylor, S.F. (2007). The conceptual domain of service loyalty: how many dimensions? Journal of services marketing, 21 (1), 36-51.

Kandampully, J., & Hu, H. (2007). Do hoteliers need to manage image to retain loyal customers? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19 (6), 435-443.

Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry; the role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12 (6), 346-351.

Kayaman, R., & Arasli, H. (2007). Customer based brand equity: evidence from the hotel industry. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 17 (1), 92 – 109.

Keiningham, T.L., Cooil, B., Aksoy, L., Andreassen, T.W., & Weiner, J. (2007). The value of different customer satisfaction and loyalty metrics in predicting customer retention, recommendation, and share-of-wallet. Managing service quality: An international Journal, 17 (4), 361-384.

Kim, D.J., Ferrin, D.L., & Rao, H.R. (2008). A trust-based consumer decision-making model in electronic commerce: The role of trust, perceived risk, and their antecedents. Decision Support Systems, 44 (2), 544–564.

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2013).Principles of Marketing, New Jersey, NJ; Prentice Hall.

Kruja, D., Ha, H., Drishti, E. & Oelfke, T. (2016).Empowerment in the hospitality industry in the United States. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 25 (1), 25-48.

Ladeira, W.J., Santini, F.O., Araujo, C.F., & Sampaio, H.C. (2016). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction in tourism and hospitality. Journal of Hospitality and Marketing Management, 25 (8), 975-1009.

Ladhari, R. (2009). A review of twenty years of SERVQUAL research. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 1 (2), 172-198.

Ladhari, R., Souiden, N., & Ladhari, I. (2011). Determinants of loyalty and recommendation: The role of perceived service quality, emotional satisfaction and image. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 16 (2), 111–124.

Lai, F., Griffin, M., & Babin, B. (2009). How quality, value, image and satisfaction create loyalty at a Chinese telecom. Journal of Business Research, 62 (10), 980-986.

Laroche, M., Habibi, M.R., & Richard, M.O. (2013). To be or not to be in social media: How brand loyalty is affected by social media? International Journal of Information Management, 33 (1), 76–82.

Lee, H-M., Lee, C-C., & Wu, C-C. (2011). Brand image strategy affects brand equity after M&A. European Journal of Marketing, 45 (7/8), 1091 – 1111.

Li, X., & Petrick, J.F. (2008). Reexamining the Dimensionality of Brand Loyalty: A Case of the Cruise Industry. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 25 (1), 68-85.

Loureiro, S.M.C., & Kastenholz, E. (2011). Corporate reputation, satisfaction, delight, and loyalty towards rural lodging units in Portugal. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30 (3), 575–583.

Martinez, P., & del Bosque, I.R. (2013). CSR and customer loyalty: The roles of trust, customer identification with the company and satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 89–99.

Morgan, R.M., & Hunt, S.D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), 20 – 38.

Nadiri, H., Hussain, K., Ekiz, E.H., & Erdogan, S. (2008). An investigation on the factors influencing passengers’ loyalty in the North Cyprus national airline. The Total Quality Management Journal, 20 (3), 265-280.

Nam, J., Ekinci, Y., & Whyatt, G. (2011). Brand equity, brand loyalty and consumer satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 38 (3), 1009–1030.

Nghiêm-Phú, B.(2016). Country image, country attachment, country loyalty, and life satisfaction of foreign residents in Vietnam. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 16 (4), 329-344.

Nguyen, N. (2006). The collective impact of service workers and servicescape on the corporate image formation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25 (2), 227–244.

Nguyen, N., & Leblanc, G. (2001). Corporate image and corporate reputation in customers’ retention decisions in services. Journal of retailing and consumer Services, 8 (4), 227-236.

Nyadzayo, M.W., & Khajehzadeh, S. (2016). The antecedents of customer loyalty: A moderated mediation model of customer relationship management quality and brand image. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 262-270.

Nunkoo, R., Teeroovengadum, V., Thomas, P., & Leonard, L. (2017). Integrating service quality as a second-order factor in a customer satisfaction and loyalty model. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29 (12), 2978-3005.

Oliver, R.L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63, 33-44.

Olorunniwo, F., & Hsu, M.K. (2006). A typology analysis of service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in mass services. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 16 (2), 106 -123.

Pantouvakis, A., & Lymperopoulos, K. (2008). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in the eyes of new and repeat customers: Evidence from the transport sector. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 18 (6), 623 – 643.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., & Berry, L. (1985).A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49 (4), 41-50.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., & Malhotra, A. (2005). E-S-QUAL: A multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality. Journal of Service Research, 7 (3), 213-233.

Petrick, J.F. (2004). The roles of quality, value and satisfaction in predicting cruise passengers’ Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Travel Research, 42 (4), 397-407.

Russell-Bennett, R., McColl-Kennedy, J.R., & Coote, L.V. (2007). Involvement, satisfaction, and brand loyalty in a small business services setting. Journal of Business Research, 60 (12), 1253-1260.

Ryu, K., Lee, H.R., & Kim, W.G. (2012). The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24 (2), 200-223.

Salegna, G.J., & Goodwin, S.A. (2005). Consumer loyalty to service providers: An integrated conceptual model. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 18, 51-67.

San Martin, H., & delBosque, I.R. (2008). Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29 (2), 263-277.

Sánchez, J.L., Callarisa, L., Rodríguez, R.M., & Moliner, M.A. (2006). Perceived value of the purchase of a tourism product. Tourism Management, 27 (3), 394–409.

Singh, J., & Sirdeshmukh, D. (2000). Agency and trust mechanisms in relational exchanges. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (1), 150-167.

Singh, A.P., & Thakur, S. (2012). Impact of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: In The Context of Retail Outlets In DB City Shopping Mall Bhopal. International Journal of Management Research and Reviews, 2 (2), 334-344.

Sirdeshmukh, D., Singh, J., & Sabol, B. (2002). Consumer trust, value and loyalty in relational exchange. Journal of Marketing, 66 (1), 15-37.

Skogland, I., & Siguaw, J.A. (2004). Are your satisfied customers loyal? Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 45 (3), 221-234.

Yang, Z., & Peterson, R.T. (2004).Customer perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: The role of switching costs. Psychology and Marketing, 21 (10), 799–822.

Zeithaml, V.A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52 (3), 2-22.

Zeithaml, V., Berry, L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996).The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60 (2), 31-46.

Original Scientific Paper