Changes in linear and nonlinear measures of RR and QT interval series after beer intake
Background/Aim. There are only several studies on the acute effect of alcoholic drinks intake on heart rhythm and this phenomenon is still not well understood. We wanted to examine whether linear and nonlinear measures of RR interval and QT interval series could quantify the effect of beer in healthy subjects. Methods. Eighteen young volunteers drank 500 mL of beer (21 g of ethanol). Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were taken in supine position: 20 minutes before (relaxation) and 60 minutes after drink intake. The RR interval series and the QT interval series were extracted from ECG and we calculated short-term (α1) and long-term (α2) scaling exponents and sample entropy (SampEn) for both series; low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) spectral components from RR interval series and QT variability (QTV). Blood pressure was measured every 10 minutes. Results. It was shown that beer induced changes in variability and correlation properties of these series. Immediate effect of beer intake was detected as a transient increase in the QT variability, heart rate and blood pressure. Delayed effects of beer were shortening of the RR and QT intervals and reduction of the HF spectral component. Beer intake also increased short-term scaling exponent (α1) of the RR time series and long-term scaling exponent (α2) of the QT time series. Conclusion. Our results suggest that acute effects of beer are reduced parasympathetic control of the heart and changed dynamic complexity of the ventricular repolarization.
Goldberg RJ, Burchfiel CM, Reed DM, Wergowske G, Chiu D. A prospective study of the health effects of alcohol consumption in middle-aged and elderly men. The Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation 1994; 89(2): 651−9.
Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Bagnardi V, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaеtano G. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: An updated meta-analysis of 34 prospective studies. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166(22): 2437−45.
Spaak J, Tomlinson G, McGowan CL, Soleas GJ, Morris BL, Picton P, et al. Dose-related effects of red wine and alcohol on heart rate variability. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2010; 298(6): 2226−31.
Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability: Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pac-ing and Electrophysiology. Circulation 1996; 93(5): 1043−65.
Peng CK, Havlin S, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Quantification of scaling exponents and crossover phenomena in nonstationary heartbeat time series. Chaos 1995; 5(1): 82−7.
Lombardi F. Chaos theory, heart rate variability, and arrhythmic mortality. Circulation 2000; 101(1): 8−10.
Richman JS, Moorman JR. Physiological time-series analysis using approximate entropy and sample entropy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2000; 278(6): H2039−49.
Lorsheyd A, Lange DW, Hijmering ML, Cramer MJ, Wiel A. PR and OTc interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram after binge drinking in healthy individuals. Neth J Med 2005; 63(2): 59−63.
Platiša MM, Gal V, Nestorović Z, Gojković-Bukarica LJ. Quantifi-cation of the acute effect of a low dose of red wine by nonlin-ear measures of RR and QT interval series in healthy subjects. Comput Biol Med 2014; 53: 291−6.
Leskosek-Cukalovic I, Despotovic S, Lakic N, Niksic M, Nedovic V, Tesevic V. Ganoderma lucidum: Medical mushroom as a raw material for beer with enhanced functional properties. Food Res Int 2010; 43(2262): 22−69.
Salvi V, Karnad DR, Panicker GK, Natekar M, Hingorani P, Kerk-ar V, et al. Comparison of 5 methods of QT interval meas-urements on electrocardiograms from a thorough QT/QTc study: Effect on assay sensitivity and categorical outliers. J Electrocardiol 2011; 44(2): 96−104.
Platisa MM, Gal V. Reflection of heart rate regulation on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability measures. Physiol Meas 2006; 27(2): 145−54.
Potter JF, Watson RD, Skan W, Beevers DG. The pressor and metabolic effects of alcohol in normotensive subjects. Hyper-tension 1986; 8(7): 625−31.
Tawakol A, Omland T, Creager MA. Direct effect of ethanol on human vascular function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004; 286(6): H2468−73.
Baumert M, Schlaich MP, Nalivaiko E, Lambert E, Sari CI, Kaye DM, et al. Relation between QT interval variability and cardiac sympathetic activity in hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2011; 300(4): H1412−7.
Baumert M, Lambert GW, Dawood T, Lambert EA, Esler MD, Mcgrane M, et al. QT interval variability and cardiac norepi-nephrine spillover in patients with depression and panic disor-der. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2008; 295(3): H962−8.
Piccirillo G, Magrì D, Ogawa M, Song J, Chong VJ, Han S, et al. Autonomic nervous system activity measured directly and QT interval variability in normal and pacing-induced tachycardia heart failure dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54(9): 840−50.
Lewis MJ, Short AL. Sample entropy of electrocardiographic RR and QT time-series data during rest and exercise. Physiol Meas 2007; 28(6): 731−44.