Molecular biomarkers in multiple sclerosis

  • Danica Michaličková Charles University - Institute of Pharmacology, First Faculty of Medicine
  • Hatice Kübra Öztürk Charles University - Institute of Pharmacology, First Faculty of Medicine
  • Debanjan Das Charles University - Institute of Pharmacology, First Faculty of Medicine
  • Syed Osama Bukhari Charles University - Institute of Pharmacology, First Faculty of Medicine
  • Ondřej Slanař Charles University - Institute of Pharmacology, First Faculty of Medicine
Keywords: multiple sclerosis, molecular biomarker, neurofilament, cerebrospinal fluid, diagnosis, treatment response


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly heterogenous disease regarding radiological, pathological, and clinical characteristics and therapeutic response, including both the efficacy and safety profile of treatments. Accordingly, there is a high demand for biomarkers that sensitively and specifically apprehend the distinctive aspects of the MS heterogeneity, and that can aid in better understanding of the disease diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of the treatment response, and, finally, in the development of new treatments. Currently, clinical characteristics (e.g., relapse rate and disease progression) and magnetic resonance imaging play the most important role in the clinical classification of MS and assessment of its course. Molecular biomarkers (e.g., immunoglobulin G (IgG) oligoclonal bands, IgG index, anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies, neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta and natalizumab, anti-varicella zoster virus and anti-John Cunningham (JC) virus antibodies) complement these markers excellently. This review provides an overview of exploratory, validated and clinically useful molecular biomarkers in MS which are used for prediction, diagnosis, disease activity and treatment response.


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Review articles