SINDROM SAGOEVANJA NA RADU KOD PROSVETNIH RADNIKA

  • Nada Maric Zavod za medicinu rada i sporta Republike Srpske Centar Bijeljina
  • Nataša Maksimović Institut za epidemiologiju, Medicinski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu
  • Petar Bulat Institut za medicinu rada Srbije, Beograd, Medicinski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu
Ključne reči: profesionalni stres, sindrom sagorevanja na radu, prosvetni radnici, nastavnici, radna sredina×

Sažetak


Sindrom sagorevanja na radu od kako se počeo spominjati u naučnoj literaturi 70tih godina poršloga veka do danas je postao široko istraživan fenomen. Reč je o stresogenoj reakciji na radnom mestu koja se karakteriše nastankom emocionalne iscrpljenosti, depersonalizacije/ cinizma i smanjenog osećaja ličnih dostignuća. Međutim, autori su se složili da je ipak reč o multikauzalnom fenomenu i identifikovali su veliki broj situacionih i individualnih faktora koji učestvuju u njegovom nastanka. Situacioni faktori se odnose na radnu sredinu i obuhvataju karakteristike samog posla i zanimanja, kao i način organizacije rada, dok individualni faktori obuhvataju karakteristike ličnosti, sociodemografske karakteristike i različite životno-radne stavove individua. Međutim ipak uočeno je postojanje određenih kontradiktornosti i njegovo variranje od zemlje do zemje. Značaj ovog fenomena pre svega zbog brojnih negativnih efekata koje ostavlja na zdravlje pojedinaca, zatim i zbog značajnog ekonomskog optrećenja poslodavaca ali i zemlje. Zbog toga su sprovedena brojna istraživanja ovog sindroma i uočena je visoka prevalencija u širokom spektru zanimanja među kojima su i nastavnici. Autori naglašavaju da je istraživanje ovog fenomena među nastavnicima od globalnog interesa jer on pored već opisanih negativnih efekata kod nastavnika direktno utiče i na obrazovni proces, kao i da ima negativne uticaje na mentalni i emotivni razvoj dece. Neminovno je da su potrebna dodatna istraživanja ovog fenomena i dalje, posebno u populaciji nastavnika, da bismo mogli bolje da razumemo. Ta znanja bi nam omogućila formiranje ciljanih intervencija u cilju smanjenja izloženosti stresu na radu i smanjena prevalencije ovog sindroma među nastavnicima.

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