Crowd-based open innovation in telco operators: readiness assessment for smart city service development
This paper studies the readiness of the Serbian telco operators and other stakeholders to implement a crowd-based open innovation business model. Telco companies are facing challenges in terms of market demands and with finding new opportunities to attract subscribers with innovative products and services. These innovations are frequently oriented towards smart city services based on emerging technologies such as Internet of things, cloud computing, software defined networks and blockchain. Due to complexity, pace and costs of research and development, telco operators have already recognized the need to shift from a traditional to an open innovation concept. The development of crowdsourcing models has further fueled the possibility to include customers in the open innovation process, in order to better design and develop services suited to their own needs. With this in mind, the goal of this paper is to propose a crowd-based open innovation business model for improvement of innovation capacities of Serbian telco operators. The proposed model is used as the basis of evaluating the readiness of internal and external stakeholders for participation in open innovation projects. The study is based on the adjusted value-based adoption model, while the analysis is performed using the PLS-SEM method. The results show that participants identify trust as the most influential factor for the perceived value of crowd-based open innovation, while the internal stakeholders of telco companies find expected income and reputation as the most relevant. Both groups have shown a high interest in innovations related to smart city services such as smart traffic and ecology-related services.
Abhari, K., Davidson, E., & Xiao, B. (2022). Inventing together: The role of actor goals and platform affordances in open innovation. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 23 (1), 264-302.
Anisic, Z., Koldzin, D., & Freund, R. (2013). How to support open inovations through public policies?. Annals of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, 11 (2), 241-247.
Bigliardi, B., Ferraro, G., Filippelli, S., & Galati, F. (2021). The past, present and future of open innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 24 (4), 1130-1161.
Bogers, M., Chesbrough, H., & Moedas, C. (2018). Open innovation: Research, practices, and policies. California management review, 60 (2), 5-16.
Chesbrough, H. (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperatives for Creating and Profiting from Technologies, Harvard business School Press, Boston.
Chesbrough, H. (2006). Open innovation: A new paradigm for understanding industrial innovation. In Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., & West, J. (Eds.), Open Innovation:Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 1–12
Chesbrough, H., & Bogers, M. (2014). Explicating open innovation: Clarifying an emerging paradigm for understanding innovation. In Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., & West, J. (Eds), New Frontiers in Open Innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 3-28.
Curley, M., & Salmelin, B. (2013). Open Innovation 2.0: A New Paradigm–White Paper. In OI2 Conference Paper Open Innovation Strategy and Policy Group (OISPG).
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18 (1), 39-50.
Grimaldi, M., Greco, M., & Cricelli, L. (2021). A framework of intellectual property protection strategies and open innovation. Journal of Business Research, 123, 156-164.
Hair, J.F.J., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M., (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), 46(1–2), Sage publications, Thousand Oaks, CA
Hallerstede, S.H. (2013). Open innovation intermediaries. In Managing the lifecycle of open innovation platforms. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden. 35-48.
Inauen, M., & Schenker-Wicki, A. (2012). Fostering radical innovations with open innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 15 (2), 212-231.
Janevski, Z., Davitkovska, E., & Petkovski, V. (2015). Barriers of implementing open innovations in Macedonian SME’s. Economic Development. Journal of the Institute of Economics–Skopje, 3, 93-106.
Kim, H.W., Chan, H.C., & Gupta, S. (2007). Value-based adoption of mobile internet: an empirical investigation. Decision support systems, 43 (1), 111-126.
Malone, T. W., Laubacher, R., & Dellarocas, C. (2010). The collective intelligence genome. MIT Sloan Mangement Review, 51 (3), 21–31.
Mubarak, M.F., & Petraite, M. (2020). Industry 4.0 technologies, digital trust and technological orientation: What matters in open innovation?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 161, 120332.
Nepelski, D. (2019). How to facilitate digital innovation in Europe. Intereconomics, 54 (1), 47-52.
European Commission, Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology. (2018). In Open Innovation 2.0 Yearbook 2017–2018. European Commission Publications Office: Luxembourg. Retrieved from https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/10defd18-d291-11e8-9424-01aa75ed71a1
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers, 1. John Wiley & Sons.
Payán-Sánchez, B., Belmonte-Ureña, L. J., Plaza-Úbeda, J. A., Vazquez-Brust, D., Yakovleva, N., & Pérez-Valls, M. (2021). Open innovation for sustainability or not: Literature reviews of global research trends. Sustainability, 13 (3), 1136.
Ringle, C.M., Wende, S., & Becker, J.M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. SmartPLS GmbH. Bönningstedt, Germany.
Rosienkiewicz, M., Helman, J., Cholewa, M., & Molasy, M. (2022). Open Readiness Assessment within Students in Poland: Investigating State-of-the-Art and Challenges. Sustainability, 14 (3), 1213.
Saebi, T., & Foss, N. J. (2015). Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions. European Management Journal, 33 (3), 201-213.
Sarić, Ž., Miletić, Lj., Janjušić, D., Bubulj, M., Matijašević, J. (2019). Comparison of Perceptions of Barriers to Innovation Projects in the Companies in Serbia. In Obradovic, V., & Todorovic, M. (Eds), Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, Selected papers of the 5th IPMA SENET Project Management Conference (SENET 2019), 108, 251-258.
Shaikh, I., & Randhawa, K. (2022). Managing the risks and motivations of technology managers in open innovation:Bringing stakeholder-centric corporate governance into focus. Technovation, 114, 102437.
Singh, S.K., Gupta, S., Busso, D., & Kamboj, S. (2021).Top management knowledge value, knowledge sharing practices, open innovation and organizational performance.Journal of Business Research, 128, 788-798.
Tremblay, D.G., & Yagoubi, A. (2017). From open innovation to crowd sourcing: A new configuration of collaborative work?. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7 (3), 223-244.
Wang, Y.M., Wang, Y.S., & Wang, Y.Y. (2021). Exploring the determinants of university students’ contribution intention on crowdsourcing platforms: a value maximization perspective. Interactive Learning Environments, in press.
Witt, M. (2017). Boundaries of Open Innovation and Games. In Stieglitz, S., Lattemann, C., Robra-Bissantz, S., Zarnekow, R., & Brockmann, T. (Eds.), Gamification. Springer International Publishing. Cham. 77–91.
The Author wishes to submit the Work to SJM for publication. To enable SJM to publish the Work and to give effect to the parties’ intention set forth herein, they have agreed to cede the first right to publication and republication in the SJM Journal.
The Author hereby cedes to SJM, who accepts the cession, to the copyright in and to the paper.
The purpose of the cession is to enable SJM to publish the Work, as first publisher world-wide, and for republication in the SJM Journal, and to grant the right to others to publish the Work world-wide, for so long as such copyright subsists;
SJM shall be entitled to edit the work before publication, as it deems fit, subject to the Authors approval
The Author warrants to SJM that:
- the Author is the owner of the copyright in the Work, whether as author or as reassigned from the Author’s employee and that the Author is entitled to cede the copyright to SJM;
- the paper (or any of its part) is not submitted or accepted for publication in any other Journal;
- the Work is an original work created by the Author;
- the Author has not transferred, ceded, or assigned the copyright, or any part thereof, to any third party; or granted any third party a licence or other right to the copyright, which may affect or detract from the rights granted to SJM in terms of this agreement.
The Author hereby indemnifies the SJM as a body and its individual members, to the fullest extent permitted in law, against all or any claims which may arise consequent to the warranties set forth.
No monetary consideration shall be payable by SJM to the Author for the cession, but SJM shall clearly identify the Author as having produced the Work and ensure that due recognition is given to the Author in any publication of the Work.
Should SJM, in its sole discretion, elect not to publish the Work within 1 year after the date of this agreement, the cession shall lapse and be of no further effect. In such event the copyright shall revert to the Author and SJM shall not publish the Work, or any part thereof, without the Author’s prior written consent.