UTICAJ AEROZAGAĐENJA NA EGZACERBACIJE HRONIČNE OPSTRUKTIVNE BOLESTI PLUĆA

  • Jovan Javorac Institut za plućne bolesti Vojvodine, Sremska Kamenica, Republika Srbija; Departman za biomedicinske nauke, Visoka škola strukovnih studija za obrazovanje vaspitača i trenera, Subotica, Republika Srbija
  • Marija Jevtić Institut za javno zdravlje Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Republika Srbija; Medicinski fakultet Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, Novi Sad, Srbija
  • Dejan Živanović Departman za biomedicinske nauke, Visoka škola strukovnih studija za obrazovanje vaspitača i trenera, Subotica, Republika Srbija
  • Miroslav Ilić Institut za plućne bolesti Vojvodine, Sremska Kamenica, Republika Srbija; Medicinski fakultet Univerziteta u Novom Sadu, Novi Sad, Srbija
Ključne reči: aerozagađenje, egzacerbacija, hronična opstruktivna bolest pluća, suspendovane čestice, sumpor dioksid, azot dioksid, ozon

Sažetak


Hronična opstruktivna bolest pluća (HOBP) je jedan od vodećih globalnih javnozdravstvenih problema, sa procenom da će do 2030. godine biti treći po učestalosti uzrok smrti. Akutne egzacerbacije HOBP dovode do ubrzanog propadanja plućne funkcije, smanjenja kvaliteta života i povećanog broja hospitalizacija, kao i do smrtnih slučajeva. Najčešći uzrok egzacerbacija su respiratone infekcije, ali se danas sve više ispituje uticaj faktora životne sredine na njihov nastanak. Među njima, aerozagađivači su od najvećeg značaja. Brojne studije sprovedene do sada nedvosmisleno su pokazale da povišene koncentracije suspendovanih čestica (PM), sumpor dioksida (SO2), azot dioksida (NO2) i ozona (O3) u atmosferskom vaduhu imaju najizraženiji negativni efekat na bolesnike sa HOBP, povećavajući učestalost egzacerbacija HOBP kao i posledičnu smrtnost zbog njih. U ispitivanju njihovog uticaja nije dovoljno ispitivati samo efekte pojedinačnih zagađivača vazduha, već i njihove međusobne interakcije, kao i interakcije sa meteorološkim faktorima. U cilju smanjenja opterećenja zdravstvenih sistema ovom bolešću, neophodno je implementirati sve strategije koje će smanjiti učestalost HOBP. To svakako podrazumeva i globalno smanjenje aerozagađenja, što će zahtevati podršku najrazvijenijih svetskih ekonomija, značajno obnavljanje neophodnih resursa i, konačno, korenite društvene promene.

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2021/03/10
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