SIGNALNI PUTEVI U KONTROLI EMBRIONALNOG RAZVOJA ENTERIČKOG NERVNOG SISTEMA

  • Miloš Đuknić Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Republika Srbija
  • Nela Puškaš Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za histologiju i embriologiju „Prof. dr Aleksandar Đ. Kostić“, Republika Srbija
  • Milica Labudović Borović Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za histologiju i embriologiju „Prof. dr Aleksandar Đ. Kostić“, Republika Srbija
  • Radmila Janković Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za patologiju „Prof. dr Đorđe Joannović“, Beograd, Republika Srbija
Ključne reči: enterički nervni sistem, embrionalni razvoj, signalni putevi, Hiršprungova bolest

Sažetak


Enterički nervni sistem (ENS) obezbeđuje intrinzičku inervaciju gastrointestinalnog trakta i predstavlja najveći i najkompleksniji deo perifernog nervnog sistema. Njegove funkcije su od vitalne važnosti i podrazumevaju kontrolu motiliteta digestivnog trakta, kontrolu sekrecije, kao i razmene tečnosti i elektrolita kroz sluznicu creva. Većinu ovih funkcija ENS je sposoban da obavlja potpuno autonomno. Proučavanje najčešće kongenitalne bolesti ENS, Hiršprungove bolesti, dalo je veliki doprinos u rasvetljavanju embrionalnog razvoja ENS. Ćelije ENS potiču najvećim delom od ćelija vagalnog, a nešto manjim delom od ćelija sakralnog regiona nervnog grebena. Ove ćelije migriraju duž primitivnog creva u suprotnim smerovima, kako bi konačno kolonizovali čitavo crevo. Procesi proliferacije, migracije, neuro-glijalne diferencijacije kroz koje prolaze prekursorske ćelije ENS, regulisani su brojnim signalnim putevima. Neki od najvažnijih molekula koji učestvuju u regulaciji pravilnog razvoja ENS su GDNF (Glial Derived Neurotrophic Fatcor) i njegov receptor RET (REarranged during Transfection), endotelin 3 i njegov receptor EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), transkripcioni faktori SOX10 (SRY-box transcription factor 10), PHOX2B (Paired-like Homeobox 2B), morfogeni kao što su BMP 2 i 4 (Bone Morphogenic Proteins) i drugi. Iako su naša saznanja o kontroli razvoja ENS poslednjih godina značajno uvećana, kompleksnost strukture i funkcije ENS ostavlja dosta prostora za dalja istraživanja. U ovom preglednom radu prikazali smo dosadašnja znanja o najvažnijim regulatornim mehanizmima i signalnim putevima koji učestvuju u razvoju ENS.

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Objavljeno
2022/09/17
Rubrika
Pregledni rad