Pravne dileme moždane smrti trudne žene - slučaj Marlise Munjoz

  • Jagoda V Drljača Institut društvenih nauka, Centar za pravna istraživanja, Beograd
Ključne reči: moždana smrt, izjave date unapred, Zakon o izjavama datim unapred države Teksas (TADA), trudnoća, derogiranje volje lica, pravo na izbor, nepovredivost telesnog integriteta, dostojanstvena smrt

Sažetak


: Predmet ovog članka predstavlja slučaj koji se desio 2013. godine u Teksasu, a koji je izazvao veliku polemiku medicinske i pravne struke i uzburkao javnost. Marlisa Munjoz, 14. nedelja trudna, je doživela masivnu plućnu emboliju koja je rezultirala moždanom smrću. Marlisina volja je bila da je u slučaju ireverzibilnog oštećenja mozga lekari veštački ne održavaju. Uprkos Marlisinoj volji koju je izneo njen suprug Erik, a potvrdili njeni roditelji, lekari su odlučili da je zbog trudnoće veštački održavaju do porođaja, odnosno dok je fetus vitalan. Uporište za ovakvu odluku su našli u Zakonu o izjavama datim unapred države Teksas (TADA). Osnovni problem ovako postavljenog propisa i tumačenja jeste kolizija prava individue koja je donela odluku o svom telesnom integritetu i prava fetusa da se i dalje razvija. U ovom slučaju nisu uzete u obzir ni moždane anomalije i oštećenja koje bi pretrpeo fetus koji bi se razvijao od 14. nedelje u uslovima višemesečnog veštačkog održavanja moždano mrtve majke. Cilj istraživanja je da se analiziraju izjave date unapred, da li propisi derogiraju volju lica kada se radi o trudnoj ženi, (ne)opravdanost derogiranja, sa posebnim osvrtom na sporni TADA. U zaključnim razmatranjima ću analizirati koje se pravne i etičke dileme otvaraju u ovim slučajevima.

Biografija autora

Jagoda V Drljača, Institut društvenih nauka, Centar za pravna istraživanja, Beograd

Diplomirani pravnik- master

Doktorand, Javno pravo, Pravni fakultet Univerziteta u Novom Sadu

Reference

1. Fine. R., Mayo, T. (2003). Resolution of futility by due process: Early experience with the Texas Advance Directive Act. Annals of Internal Medicine 138(9).

2. Gostin, L. (2014). Legal and Ethical Responsibilities Following Brain Death: The mcmath and Muñoz Cases. Dostupno na: https://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/facpub/1311/
3. Jecker, N. (1992). Medical Futility. Who decides? Dostupno na: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/21557071_Medical_Futility_Who_Decides

4. Jonsen, A. (1978). Dying Right in California — The Natural Death Act, Clinical Toxicology. Dostupno na: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/15563657808988256

5. Longmire-Jefferis, V. (2014). Termination of Pregnancy Pre-Viability and the Dilemma of Maternal Artificial Life Support: An Examination of Texas State Law and Advance Directives. Health law Perspectives. Houston: Universiy of Houston.

6. Macaluso, G. (2014- 2015). Life, Death, and Somewhere In Between. Lexia vol III. Harrisonburg, Virginia: James Madison University.


7. Mayo, T. (2009). The Baby Doe Rules and ”Texas’s Futility Law“ in NICU. Dostupno na: https://readingroom.law.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?Article=2388&context=gsulr

8. Parks, B. (2020). Eight and Fourteenth Amendment Concerns with the bop Guidelines for Advance Directives. Dostupno na: http://www.voicesinbioethics.net/voices-in-bioethics/2020/2/13/eighth-and-fourteenth-amendment-concerns-with-the-bop-guidelines-for-advance-directives


9. Radolović, A. (2019). „Biološka oporuka“ u pravu osobnosti i medicinskom pravu (pravo osobnosti i trgovačko-zdravstveni aspekti). Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci 40(1).
10. Rinkus, K. (2014). The Pregnancy Exclusion in Advance Directives: Are Womans’s Constitutional Rights Being Violated? Dostupno na: https://lawecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?Article=1196&context=pilr

11. Silveira, M., Kim, S., Langa, K. (2010). Advance Directives and Outcomes of Surrogate Decision Making before Death. The New England Journal of Medicine 362(13).


12. Sperling, D. (2005). Do pregnant women have (Living) Will? Journal of Health Care Law & Policy 8(2).

13. Wiesing, U., Jox, R., Heßler, H., Borasio, G. (2010). A new law on advance directives in Germany. Dostupno na: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49640773_A_new_law_on_advance_directives_in_Germany

Izvori prava
1. Government of Texas, Texas Advance Directive Act, Austin, 1999. Dostupno na: https://statutes.capitol.texas.gov/Docs/HS/htm/HS.166.htm

2. Government of Texas, Texas Health & Safety Code, Austin, 2005. Dostupno na: https://statutes.capitol.texas.gov/Docs/HS/htm/HS.671.htm

3. United States Congress, Patient Self Determination Act, Washington, 1990. Dostupno na:
https://www.congress.gov/bill/101st-congress/house-bill/4449/text

4. Counciel of Europe, The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome, 1950. Dostupno na: https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_SRP.pdf

5. Counciel of Europe, Convention for the protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, Oviedo, 1997. Dostupno na: http://ravnopravnost.gov.rs/wpcontent/uploads/2012/11/images_files_Konvencija%20o%20ljudskim%20pravima%20i%20biomedicini.pdf

6. 14. Amandman Ustava SAD. Dostupno na: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-CONAN-2002/pdf/GPO-CONAN-2002-9-15.pdf

Sudska praksa
1. Tužbeni zahtev u postupku Munjoz vs J. P. Smith. Dostupno na: https://lrl.texas.gov/scanned/archive/2014/22695.pdf

2. Izreka presude u postupku Munjoz vs J.P. Smith. Dostupno na: http://thaddeuspope.com/images/MUNOZ_202053415-Judges-Order-on-Munoz-Matter.pdf

3. Cruzan vs Director, Missouri Department of Health, 497 U.S. 261, 25.06.1990. Dostupno na: https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/497/261/
4. Pretty vs UK, ( App. No. 2346/02), 29.04.2002.
Objavljeno
2020/07/01
Rubrika
Pregledni rad